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idfgpdfj - 10/31 Organizing science Societies academies...

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10/31 Organizing science: Societies, academies, journals Universities were dedicated to Aristotelian arts. New subjects, such as geology etc, taken up in Jesuit colleges in 17t c. Many other subjects didn’t find their homes there, which helped to shape how the scientific revolution developed. By 1600, there was a large audience for books of all kinds, including on philosophical discussions etc. Language you write in says something about who your audience is. Galileo writing in Italian indicated he was trying to reach the urban elite who were the intelligent public, not just Latin readers. Accademia dei Lincei ( Lincean Academy or ‘Academy of the Lynxes’), Rome; founded 1603 as a small group by Federico Cesi; added Galileo in 1611; focused on natural history and Galilean physics; broke up after Cesi’s death in 1630. It wasn’t a permanent institution, but it helped to lay the ground work at the time. Accademia del Cimento (‘Academy of Experiment’), Florence; founded 1657 by Prince Leopold de Medici. Promoted experimentation; broke up c. 1667. Founders trying to keep the new science alive in Italy, but they couldn't’ talk about controversial topics like physics of motion or Copernican system. They focus on something safe, like experiments. Did a lot of experiments together and then published the results afterwards in one volume. Made science a joint activity. — Group centered on Friar Marin Mersenne (1588–1648), Paris; ‘one-man scientific journal,’ circulated scientific information throughout Europe. — Montmor Academy (1640s–50s), Paris scientific salon, run by Pierre Gassendi. This academy makes some contributions but doesn’t do much long term. Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge (1660–present); founded by English Baconians, became one of the most prestigious scientific groups. Secured royal charter from King Charles II in 1662, but remained amateur and self-supporting. Humphrey said the Royal Society aimed to improve all matters of science putting aside religion/politics/metaphysics, etc. They didn’t get any funding, so had to be self-supporting. It relied only on the payment of dues from its members. if you were a wealthy man and showed an interest in the topics then you were in, women excluded. Group experiments not that productive, so they changed to a forum of communication where people could discuss work they did elsewhere, rather than doing experiments on the spot. Then the great fire of London in 1666, they had to move. Académie Royale des Sciences ( Royal Academy of Sciences ), Paris (1666–present). Group of elite professionals paid by French state; combination of expert consultants and ornaments of the court. French didn’t want the English to get too far ahead of them so advocated for a group paid for by the gov. Paris academy was very inward looking, didn’t contribute much to the wider advancement of science.
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