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Iranian Culture - No word for Persia in Iran Persian Gulf...

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No word for Persia in Iran; Persian Gulf does not belong to Iran Culture – body of customary beliefs, social forms, norms, etc. A nation can have multiple cultures Ferdowsi (940-1010) – wrote the Shahnameh, the longest narrative poem written by one person in history Jalal al Ahmed – can’t be Persian unless you have experienced the Iranian Plateau BCE – BC Iranians define themselves as who they are not often (not arab) Empire ended in 651 Zoroaster lived between 1200 – 1300 BCE Persian-Iranian is not double counting Three eras of Persian language Achaemenid (Old Persian language) Sassanid (Middle Persian language) 7th CE (Neo-Persian); involves the transformation of the Persian language due to script changes from Arab invaders Cyrus releases the Jews, only gentile prophet Persepolis; meaning destroyer of cities lieterally -Place where the throne of Jamshid, a mythical king from the Shahnameh, was. Greeks never beat the Persians until Alexander the Great A revolution means to revolve back to a familiar/ideal state Horses are man’s best friend in Iran, importance of polo -Pre-Islamic horses act as a motif Lions are the king of beasts, fighting with them is akin to practicing for war. The lion-sun image from the Persian flag comes from Turkic people in the 13th century. Became an emblem of Iranianism but really has religious background Shape of buildings put burial sites into heaven; example includes Pasargadae. Heaven is imagined as a garden; an ideal, perfect design to describe divinity Lion, bull as a symbol of the zodiac with the vernal equinox Hunting is war practice Kings prevent chaos Persian carpets as a means to keeping spring time around all year Mosque domes; blue is heaven and the design is of gardens (a symbol of heaven); both bring sense of garden/ideal world Middle Persian – Pahlavian (used it for pre Islamic Iranian era) Old Persian – Avesta Today – Farsi, Dari Husayn was killed in the year 680 -9th, 10th Moharram are events that occur in Iran -days of hurt and killing of Husayn 818 is when Reza died in Mashad 554 – 330 BCE (Achaemenid) 224 – 651 CE (Sassanid) 1501 – 1722 (Safavid) Alexander the Great comes in 330 BCE, marks the beginning of a cultural shift
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Arab Muslim invasion ends in 651 Shanavids (999-1010) were Sunni Muslims whom supported Persian culture Iran lost cultural war to Arab Muslim invaders 12th century, Safavids made Shiite Twelver religion the official state relgion of Iran 1220 (mongol invasion) changed agriculture of Iran forever Timor Lane – end of 14th century; mongol descent Shahnameh Ferdowsi used Iran differently Hafez used language the best and had the best poems (books of haft sin) Death of son makes ruling generation stronger Rostam, Sohrab wanted more than life promised them Sohrab wanted a meritocracy, not how a kingshipped worked 12-14, Islam (strict, one power) or Zoroastrian (duality, conflict, dark and light) Rostam – hunter, fights, drinks -why does he allow tahmeneh to spend the night with him?
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