the illegal enterprise of blacks especially policy or number game in which large number of blacks were employed could be considered a form of cooperative. This shows that the policy enterprise paid off more profitably than cooperatives especially for the bank operators who ran the winning number. african american start playing the numbers game in the late 19th century. in 1905 in chicago the game continued under the black control until 1920s. In chicago blacks managed to hold onto the numbers games much longer. In 1931 a group of 15 men including 12 blacks formed to control the numbers game. this was included paying off an estimated 40000 a week to the force of law and order judges , the police,. . for protection from harassment. the most successful black policy operators in chicago during this time were the three jones brothers.they established legitimate businesses from their profits which provided additional employment for blacks. In 1973 they opened the jones brothers ben franklin store.
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