Sci Revoltion Notes - Aristotle - Moved to Athens and...

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Aristotle - Moved to Athens and studied at Plato’s Academy for years - Tutored Alexander the Great (spread Greek thinking) - Writings on logic/reason very influential - All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore Socrates is mortal - Developed comprehensive intellectual system; system for organizing/sharpening knowledge, not just adding to it - 4 causes: material, efficient, formal, and final cause - Only motion appropriate for heavens were circles - Distinguished between changeable Earth and the eternal heavens - 4 elements in the material world: earth, fire, air, and water - Each of these 4 had their natural place - 5 th substance made up the heavens (aether) Ptolemaic astronomy - Most people took view that Earth was stationary at the center of the universe and all planets, stars, Sun circle the Earth - Eratosthenes measured the circumference of the Earth (fairly accurately) using the shadow cast on a stick; concluded Earth is roughly 25,000 miles around - Aristarchus of Samos (310-230BC) proposed that the Earth circles the Sun - Astronomers used circles to explain retrograde motion; the apparent change in direction of planets in the night sky - Eudoxus (410-350BC) devised system of nested spheres, but most ancient astronomers preferred geocentric/epicycle system - Ptolemy gave full treatment of epicycle system in his Almagest around 150AD - He used epicycles to conclude all planets and the Sun circle the Earth in epicycles - Copernicus was later troubled by Ptolemy’s work, he believed that Ptolemy compromised legitimate astronomical study with his proposition of equants First universities came about in the late 12 th , early 13 th century in Bologna, Oxford, Padua, etc. - Served to facilitate assimilation of ancient learning - 4 faculties offered: theology, medicine, law, and the arts Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) helped develop a Christianized version of Aristotelianism, that provided the foundation for most later medieval European thought. Originally difficult because Aristotle was a non-Christian. Printing Press- invented around 1450 by Johannes Gutenberg; had movable type, very important
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2011 for the course HISTORY 322D taught by Professor Hunt during the Fall '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Sci Revoltion Notes - Aristotle - Moved to Athens and...

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