Scientific Revolution - The Scientific Revolution The I I...

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Unformatted text preview: The Scientific Revolution The I. I. Introduction--Quote from Introduction--Quote McKay, p. 571 McKay, “Most people are not philosophers, but they nevertheless Most have a basic outlook on life, a more or less coherent worldview. At the risk of oversimplification, one may say that the worldview of medieval and early modern Europe was primarily religious and theological. Not only did religious Not Christian or Jewish teachings form the core of people’s spiritual and philosophical beliefs, but religious teachings also permeated all the rest of human thought and activity. Political theory relied on the divine right of kings, for example, and activities ranging from marriage and divorce to eating habits and hours of business were regulated by churches and religious doctrines.” (McKay, Buckler, et. al.) Buckler, Quote continued Quote “In the course of the eighteenth century, this religious In and theological world-view underwent a fundamental transformation among the European upper and comfortable classes. Economically secure and increasingly well educated, these privileged groups of pre-industrial Europe often came to see the world primarily in secular and scientific terms. And while few secular And individuals abandoned religious beliefs altogether, the role of churches and religious thinking in earthly affairs and in the pursuit of knowledge was substantially reduced. Among many in the aristocracy and solid middle classes, a new critical, scientific, and very modern world-view took shape.” (McKay, Buckler, et. al.) modern Questions to Consider Questions Why did this momentous change occur? How did this new worldview affect the way How people thought about society and human relations? relations? What impact did this new way of thinking What have on political developments and monarchical absolutism? monarchical II. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962) Revolutions II. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1963) Revolutions 1. Paradigm 2. Anomalies 3. Paradigm Shift III. The Copernican Revolution III. Copernicus, Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies Heavenly Copernicus—The Problem/Anomaly Retrograde Epicycles Epicycles motion of planets Copernicus Solution to Retrograde Motion Motion Reject geocentrism—Earth at center Adopt Heliocentrism—Sun at the center of Adopt solar system solar Other anomalies appeared Kepler Kepler Kepler’s Modern Defense of Copernicus Three Laws of Planetary Motion 1. planets orbit the sun in ellipses 2. they do not orbit at uniform speeds 3. the time it takes them to orbit is related 3. directly to their distance from the sun. to IV. Galileo d. 1642 IV. IV. Galileo d. 1642 IV. Challenging Aristotle -Induction v. Deduction -Galileo’s Controlled Experiments -Body in Motion IV. Galileo d. 1642 IV. Empirical Proof -Telescope -Discovered 4 of the moons of Jupiter. Proving Copernicus Correct Galileo d. 1642 Galileo Galileo and the Inquisition -Tried for Heresy (1633) A Word about the Warfare Model for Word Religion and Science Religion -Theologians on both sides of the debates -Scientists on both sides -Historians of science have refuted the -Historians warfare model warfare Proving Copernicus Correct Galileo d. 1642 Galileo Galileo’ Two books—Nature and the Bible “It is most pious to say and most prudent to take It for granted that Holy Scripture can never lie. . . .I think that in disputes about natural phenomena one must begin not with the authority of scriptural passages but with sensory experience and necessary demonstrations. For the holy Scripture and nature derive equally from the godhead, the former as the dictation of the Holy Spirit and the latter as the most obedient executrix of God’s orders.... executrix III. Proving Copernicus Correct Galileo d. 1642 Galileo Galileo’s Two Books—Nature and the Bible “However, by this I do not wish to imply that one should not have However, the highest regard for passages of Holy Scripture; indeed, after becoming certain of some physical conclusions, we should use these as very appropriate aids to the correct interpretation of Scripture and to the investigation of the truths they must contain, for they are most true and agree with demonstrated truths....I do not think one has to believe that the same God who has given us senses, language, and intellect would want to set aside the use of these and give us by other means the information we can acquire with them, so that we would deny our senses and reason even in the case of those physical conclusions which are placed before our eyes and intellect by our sensory experiences or by necessary demonstrations.” or V. Francis Bacon 1561-1626 V. Inductive Method 1. Diagnose the intellectual clutter and leave it behind. .i.e. don’t assume 2. Sift facts for a preliminary hypothesis. .The hypothesis is not something that has to be true, but .The something you will test in order to see if it is true. true. 3. Experiment--Test, refine, observe to see if the hypothesis is true 4. Reason from the particular to the general .In other words, after observing particular phenomena many .In times, draw general conclusions. times, .Just the opposite of Aristotle’s deduction. 5. Divide learning--Recognize that theology has its sphere and 5. religion has its. religion VI. Descartes 1596-1650 VI. Descartes 1596-1650 Discourse on Method 1637--Attacks Discourse Deduction but retains it Deduction Cogito Ergo Sum “ I think therefore I am” think -Descartes at McDonalds VII. Isaac Newton (1642-1727) VII. Isaac Newton if he lived in the 80s Isaac VII. Newton (1642-1727) VII. 1. Background Eccentric Precocious -Made virtually all of his discoveries by age 24. -Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge by -Professor age 27. Halley and Newton 1687 .Principia (1687) Knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 Knighted -State Burial (1727) -State VII. Newton (1642-1727) VII. 2. His Minor (Major) Discoveries Optics -Color in Light Tides and Equinoxes -Gravitational pull of the moon causes -Gravitational tides. tides. Reflector Telescope III. Newton (1642-1727) III. 3. Newton’s Phases in his physics Started with Kepler/Descartes— Mathematical/deductive Move to Galileo/Bacon—Inductive Adaptation and Synthesis VII. Newton (1642-1727) VII. 4. Gravity—The Key VII. Newton (1642-1727) VII. 5. Newton’s Laws of Motion Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion + Galileo’s Laws of Terrestrial Motion = 1. Body in motion tends to stay in motion 2. force=mass X acceleration 3. “for every action…” 3. “for These laws applied everywhere in the universe The Laws of Nature Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687)--Principia Philosophy Implications of Newton Implications 1. Laws of Nature .Nature is not haphazard. .It is regular and predictable. .We can rely on them. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2011 for the course HISTORY 322D taught by Professor Hunt during the Fall '11 term at University of Texas.

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