SR-04-Arabic science - sought out Arabic scientific texts...

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Arabic science and its reception in the West Foreseeing fall of Rome and decline of learning, Boethius (Roman, AD 480–524) translated some of Plato’s and Aristotle’s works into Latin. Most other ancient Greek learning was lost or forgotten in Western Europe after about AD 600. Greek learning spread slowly in Middle East in early centuries AD, often translated into Syriac. From c. 800, Muslim rulers sponsored translations into Arabic (either via Syriac or directly from Greek) of works by Aristotle, Ptolemy, Galen, and others. Many translated in Baghdad by Nestorian scholar Hunayn ibn Ishaq, c. 850. Writing mainly in Arabic, Muslim scholars such as Ibn Sina (Avicenna) , Uzbekistan, 980–1037, and Ibn Rushd (Averroës) , Spain, 1126–1198 produced elaborate commentaries on Greek texts, as well as original medical, scientific, and philosophical works. In 1100s, Latin Christian scholars such as Adelard of Bath and Gerard of Cremona
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Unformatted text preview: sought out Arabic scientific texts and Arabic versions of Greek texts, translated them into Latin. Main translation centers were in Spain, Southern Italy, and Sicily. First European universities were established in late 1100s–early 1200s at Bologna, Padua, Paris, and Oxford; served to facilitate the assimilation of ancient learning. Medieval universities offered instruction in four faculties: theology — ‘Queen of the Sciences’ medicine — based largely on Galen and Avicenna law — mainly Roman and canon law ‘arts’ — largest of the faculties; preparatory to others; focused on logic After initial controversies, Aristotle’s teachings acquired great prestige in medieval Europe; St. Thomas Aquinas (c.1225–1274) and others developed a Christianized version of Aristotelianism that, as ‘ scholasticism ,’ provided the foundation for most later medieval European thought....
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