SR-12-review-Roots - Arabic extensions of Greek...

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Review: the roots of the Scientific Revolution Main themes: — Aristotelian natural philosophy — Ptolemaic and Copernican astronomy — Transmission of ancient learning — Experimentalism and natural magic Aristotle (c. 330 BC, Athens): four elements: earth, water, air, fire; Heavens and Earth; nested spheres; natural place and natural motion. Ptolemy (c. AD 150, Alexandria): Almagest : geocentric model with epicycles; ‘save the phenomena’ Nicholas Copernicus (1473–1543, Poland): De Revolutionibus (1543): heliocentric model of planetary system; more harmonious than Ptolemy’s system, but moving Earth contradicted both common sense and Aristotelian physics. Transmission, extension, and assimilation of ancient learning: Greek to Arabic (c. 750–1000, Baghdad);
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Unformatted text preview: Arabic extensions of Greek learning (Ibn Sina, c. 1010; Ibn Rushd, c. 1150) Arabic to Latin (c. 1050–1200, Spain, Southern Italy); first universities founded c. 1150–1250 (Bologna, Paris, Oxford); synthesis of Christianity and Aristotelianism to produce scholasticism; advent of printing (1450s) expands and transforms world of learning. Experimentalism and natural magic: Paracelsus (1493–1541, German/Swiss): alchemical quest to unlock hidden powers of Nature; doctrine of ‘signatures’ Francis Bacon (1561–1626, English) and his experimental philosophy: inductive empirical method to build general truths from particular facts; calls for systematic cooperative research (‘Salomon’s House’); emphasizes using knowledge to expand human power....
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