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SR-18-Galileo-telescope - sensation throughout Europe...

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Galileo and the telescope Galileo Galilei (1564–1642, Italian). Mathematician at University of Pisa, later at Padua. Studied motion, performed experiments; rejected Aristotelian doctrines and by 1608 had formulated alternative mathematical laws of motion, but was not yet ready to publish his results June 1609 — Galileo heard of a new Dutch ‘spyglass’ ( telescope ); soon made better ones of his own. First presented it to Venetian authorities as a tool for shipping and warfare, then turned it on the skies and began making discoveries. Galileo’s first telescopic discoveries (1609–10): Moon had mountains , was Earth-like. Many new stars invisible to naked eye. Jupiter circled by four moons (Jan. 1610). March 1610 — Galileo published a small Latin book, Sidereus Nuncius (‘Sidereal Messenger,’ or ‘Message from the Stars’), describing his discoveries; created a
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Unformatted text preview: sensation throughout Europe, quickly made Galileo very famous. In a bid for patronage , Galileo dedicated Sidereus Nuncius to Cosimo de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and named the moons of Jupiter the ‘Medicean stars.’ Galileo’s effort paid off: in mid-1610 he was appointed ‘Chief Mathematician and Philosopher’ to Cosimo’s court, a lucrative post he held for the rest of his life. Galileo’s later telescopic discoveries (1610–12): • Saturn had odd appendages on its sides (not identified as rings until 1659). • Sun had moving spots , suggesting it spun on its axis. • Venus showed full phases , and so must orbit the Sun. (This refuted Ptolemy, but did not prove Copernicus; Tycho’s system was still in the running.)...
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