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SR-20-Galileo-physics - 1 relativity of motion only the...

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Galileo and the physics of motion After his condemnation by the Church in 1633, Galileo returned to a seemingly ‘safe’ subject: the mathematical physics of motion. In Assayer (1623), Galileo had said that the ultimate particles of matter have only size, shape, and motion . These primary qualities are objective and real, he said; Aristotelian sensible qualities (color, taste, etc.) are secondary—merely products of how particles impinge on our sense organs. Note that the primary qualities are mechanical and can all be treated mathematically . In his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems (1632), Galileo introduced two general principles of motion:
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Unformatted text preview: 1) relativity of motion : only the relative motion of bodies counts; 2) inertia : left to itself, a body will persist in its current state of motion or rest; only change of motion requires a cause. These principles made a moving Earth plausible, and also provided a basis for analyzing the motions of ordinary bodies. In his Discourses on Two New Sciences (1638), Galileo derived his laws of falling bodies: 1) speed of a falling body increases in proportion to the time elapsed: v = at. 2) distance travelled in free fall increases with square of the time elapsed: d=1/2at 2 . 3) projectiles follow parabolic trajectorie s....
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