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SR-27-review-Central Phase(1)

SR-27-review-Central Phase(1) - • as a descriptive...

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Review: The Central Phase of the Scientific Revolution People: William Gilbert (1544–1603) — English Tycho Brahe (1546–1601) — Danish Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) — German Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) — Italian William Harvey (1578–1657) — English Blaise Pascal (1623–62) — French René Descartes (1596–1650) — French Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) — English Themes: Response to Copernicanism: • New astronomy (Copernicus, Kepler) requires a new physics (Galileo) The uses of mathematics: • as the key to hidden harmonies (Kepler)
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Unformatted text preview: • as a descriptive tool (Galileo) • as a model of rigorous reasoning (Descartes) Debate over method: • deductive rationalism (Descartes, Hobbes) vs. inductive empiricism (Bacon) • use of experiments by Gilbert, Galileo, Harvey, and Pascal The mechanical philosophy: • Matter regarded as just ‘dead rocks’ with only size, shape, and motion (primary qualities) • Invention of detailed mechanisms to account for natural phenomena Belief and authority: the Galileo affair; Hobbes on science, religion, and the state...
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