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Ch. 7 notes - Chapter 7 Memory Constructing and...

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Chapter 7: Memory Constructing and Reconstructing Our Pasts Memory illusion (记记记记) – a false but convincing memory. Memory is reconstructive – we extract (记记) the gist (记记) to make things easier to remember (but this may contribute to memory errors) The Three systems model of memory: Sensory, Short - Term, and Long – Term Each system differs in terms of span and duration 1. Sensory Memory – very brief storage of perceptual information; each sense has its own form a. Iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory) memories 2. Short term memory – limited duration ( <20 seconds ) and capacity (the magic number = 7 ± 2 pieces of information) a. Includes working memory – information we’re actively processing b. Subject to fast decay and interference (记记) (2 types) b.i. Retroactive inhibition (记记记记) – acquisition of new info interferes with retention of old (记记记记记记记记记记记记) b.ii. Proactive inhibition (记记记记) – old info interferes with acquisition of new info (记记记记记 记) b.ii.1. Most likely when old and new stimuli are similar *How can we aid our short term memory? 1) Chunking (记记) – organizing info into meaningful groupings to extend the span of STM beyond 7 ± 2 2) Rehearsal (记记) – repeating info to extend the duration of STM a. Maintenance rehearsal (记记记记) – repeating stimuli in the original form (ex. Repeating phone number long enough to dial it) b. Elaborative rehearsal (记记记记)– linking stimuli in a meaningful way 3) Levels of processing model a. The more deeply we transform info, the better we remember it. 3. Long Term Memory – permanent store of information a. Differs from STM b. LTM capacity is very large c. LTM may endure for decades d. Errors of LTM(semantic 记记记记记) differ from those of STM(acoustic 记记记记记) *What’s in the middle? Forgetting is not random
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1) Primacy Effect – tendency to remember words at the beginning of a list better than those later in the list.
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