psych notes EXAM 2

psych notes EXAM 2 - CHAPTER 6: LEARNING: How Nurture...

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CHAPTER 6: LEARNING: How Nurture Changes Us 2/3/10 BASIC TERMINOLOGY Learning – change in behavior or thought as a result of experience Habituation – process by which we respond less strongly over time to repeated stimuli Sensitization – process by which we respond more strongly over time (especially for dangerous, irritating stimuli) CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Ivan Pavlov – studied digestion in dogs; described Classical Conditioning - involving: o UCS (unconditioned stimulus) – stimulus that produces automatic/unlearned/reflexive response o UCR (unconditioned response) – automatic/unlearned reflexive response to a UCS that occurs without learning o Ex. When someone comes up behind you and scares you, you were never told to react the way you do, but do it. o CS (conditioned stimulus) – initially neutral stimulus, becomes associated with the UCS o CR (conditioned response) – learned response - By virtue of CS-UCS pairing, the CS comes to elicit the CR, a response closely related, but not identical, to the UCR. Aversive conditioning – classical conditioning to an unpleasant UCS - avoidance response Acquisition – learning phase during which CR is established Extinction – gradual decrease and elimination of CR when the CS is presented repeatedly without the UCS Spontaneous recovery – sudden reemergence of an extinguished CR after a delay Renewal effect – tendency of an extinguished CR to return when revisiting the original conditioning environment Phobias – intense and irrational fears - Some acquired via classical conditioning - Subject to spontaneous recovery and renewal - Just about anything you can think of has a name for that phobia Stimulus generalization – elicitation of a CR to stimuli that are highly similar to, but not identical to, the CS - Generalization gradient – the more similar to the original CS the new CS is, the stronger the CR will be - Stimulus discrimination – occurs when we exhibit a CR to certain CS’s, but not others
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PAVLOV’S CLASSICAL CONDITIONING MODEL Classical conditioning Ex. Opening a can of cat food and cat comes running Ex. Associating scents with sex Single couples – alcohol Married couples – toothpaste APPLICATION OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING TO DAILY LIFE 1. Advertising - pairing positive US’s with product CS’s (ex. Associating with half naked men/women, positive reaction to products) 2. Acquisition of fears: Little Albert Paired a white rat (CS) with a loud clanging metal noise (UCS) 3. Acquisition of fetishes Fetishism – experiencing sexual attraction to nonliving things Preferring an object over a living thing 4. Disgust reaction – a product of classical conditioning because CS’s associated with disgusting UCS’s come to elicit disgust themselves ex. give someone chocolate, they will eat it, but if you give someone chocolate in the shape of dog poo they are less likely to eat it OPERANT CONDITIONING Or instrumental conditioning – acquiring behaviors as a result of the consequence of those
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2011 for the course PSY 0010 taught by Professor Joshuafetterman during the Spring '08 term at Pittsburgh.

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psych notes EXAM 2 - CHAPTER 6: LEARNING: How Nurture...

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