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Chapter 9 reedited - Chapter 9 Intelligence and IQ Testing...

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Chapter 9 Intelligence and IQ Testing – Controversy and Consensus
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What is Intelligence? It is fairly easily recognized… You often kn ow it when you see it. How do you define it? The ability to Acquire and apply knowledge Reason logically Plan effectively Infer perceptively Make sound judgments
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Intelligence as Abstract Thinking Alfred Binet and Henri Simon (1904) – first intelligence test In 1921, a forum of 14 experts agreed that intelligence consists of the abilities to: Reason abstractly Adapt to novel environmental circumstances Acquire knowledge Benefit from experience Americans tend to view intelligence as:
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The little letter g Unlike Galton’s prior sensory measures, th e measures on other intelligence tests corr elated with one another. Charles Spearman (1927) – these correlati ons suggest a single common factor acros s all aspects of mental ability: g for general intelligence Spearman called the specific abilities s fac tors.
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Fluid and Crystallized Intelligenc e Raymond Cattell (1971) distinguished two types of intelligence Fluid Intelligence – “native mental ability”; info rmation processing and speed of information processing; ability to think and reason; Non-ve rbal, relatively culture-free and independent of specific instruction
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