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Psy Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Research Methods Heuristics and...

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Chapter 2 Research Methods
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Heuristics and Biases -How can we be fooled?
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Heuristics Heuristics 启启启 -Mental shortcuts or rules of th umb. Reduce the cognitive energy required to s olve problems. We tend to oversimplify reality.
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Common Heuristics Representativeness- “Like goes with like.” Base Rates- how common a characteristic or behavior is in the several population. Availability- “Off the top of my head.” How easy something comes to mind. Estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds.
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Cognitive Bias Hindsight 启启启启 Bias -(I know it all along) Tendency to overestimat e how well we could have successfully forec asted known outcomes. Overconfidence - Tendency to overestimate our ability to ma ke correct predictions.
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-These errors can lead to confidence in false conclusions.
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Scientific Method - A toolbox of skills.
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Allows us to test specific hypothesis derive d from broader theories of how things wor k. -Theories are never “proven”, but hypothesi s can be disconfirmed.
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Naturalistic Observation- Watching behavi ors in real world settings. -High external validity: extent to which we c an generalize our findings to the real world. -Low internal validity: extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences.
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Case study designs -Depth is traded for breadth -Common with rare types of brain damage.
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