Psy Chapter 2

Psy Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Research Methods Heuristics and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 2 Research Methods Heuristics and Biases-How can we be fooled? Heuristics Heuristics -Mental shortcuts or rules of th umb. Reduce the cognitive energy required to s olve problems. We tend to oversimplify reality. Common Heuristics Representativeness- Like goes with like. Base Rates- how common a characteristic or behavior is in the several population. Availability- Off the top of my head. How easy something comes to mind. Estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds. Cognitive Bias Hindsight Bias-(I know it all along) Tendency to overestimat e how well we could have successfully forec asted known outcomes. Overconfidence- Tendency to overestimate our ability to ma ke correct predictions.-These errors can lead to confidence in false conclusions. Scientific Method- A toolbox of skills. Allows us to test specific hypothesis derive d from broader theories of how things wor k.-Theories are never proven, but hypothesi s can be disconfirmed. Naturalistic Observation- Watching behavi ors in real world settings.-High external validity: extent to which we c an generalize our findings to the real world....
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Psy Chapter 2 - Chapter 2 Research Methods Heuristics and...

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