Chapter 12 Journal

Chapter 12 Journal - Chapter 12 An Overview of Physical...

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Chapter 12 An Overview of Physical States And Phase Changes 1. Electrostatic Forces: 1.1) Intramolecular Forces (bonding forces): exist within each molecule and influence the chemical properties of the substance. 1.2) Intermolecular Forces (nonbonding forces): exist between the molecules and influence the physical properties of the substance. 2. A Kinetic-Molecular View of the Three States 2.1) In a gas, the energy of attraction is small relative to the energy of motion, so the particles are far apart. 2.2) Ina Liquid, the attractions are stronger because the particles are in virtual contact. 2.3) Ina solid, the attractions dominate the motion so much that the particles remain in position relative to one another, jiggling in place. 3. Types of Phase Changes 3.1) Types 3.1.a.Condensation: the process by which a gas changes into a liquid 3.1.b. Vaporization: the process by which a liquid changes into a gas 3.1.c.Freezing: the process in which the liquid solidifies 3.1.d. Melting (Fusion): the process in which a solid changes into a liquid 3.1.e.Sublimation: the process in which a solid changes into a gas without fist becoming a liquid. 3.1.f. Deposition: the process in which a gas changes directly into a solid. 3.2) Enthalpy 3.2.a.Condensing and freezing are exothermic changes
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3.2.b. Melting and vaporizing are endothermic changes 3.2.c.Heat of vaporization ( vap ). 3.2.d. Heat of fusion ( fus ). 3.2.e.Heat of sublimation ( sub ) Quantitative Aspects of Phase Changes 1. Heat Involved in Phase Changes: A Kinetic-Molecular Approach 1.1) Heating-Cooling Curve 1.1.a.Gaseous Water Cools: q = n × C water(g) × T 1.1.b. Gaseous Water Condenses: q = n × (- vap ) while the state is changing from gas to liquid, the temperature remains constant, so the average E k is constant, but the average E p decreases) This step contributes the greatest portion of the total heat released. 1.1.c.Liquid Water Cools: q = n × C
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Chapter 12 Journal - Chapter 12 An Overview of Physical...

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