2020-TIP-Report-Complete-062420-FINAL.pdf - T R A F F I C K I NGI NP E R S ONSR E P OR T 2 0 T HE DI T I ON J UNE2 0 2 0 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT

2020-TIP-Report-Complete-062420-FINAL.pdf - T R A F F I C K...

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Unformatted text preview: T R A F F I C K I NGI NP E R S ONSR E P OR T 2 0 T HE DI T I ON J UNE2 0 2 0 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT JUNE 2020 MESSAGE FROM THE SECRETARY OF STATE Dear Reader: For 20 years, the Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP Report) has demonstrated the United States’ conviction that human trafficking is a global threat necessitating a global response. Traffickers are denying nearly 25 million people their fundamental right to freedom, forcing them to live enslaved and toil for their exploiter’s profit. This report arms governments with the data they need to increase the prosecution of traffickers, provide victim-centered and trauma-informed protection for victims of trafficking, and prevent this crime altogether.  As this 20th anniversary report is released, we and our allies and partners find ourselves confronting a crisis that has reached previously unimagined proportions. While urgency has always marked the fight against human trafficking, the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic have magnified the need for all stakeholders to work together in the fight more than ever. We know that human traffickers prey upon the most vulnerable and look for opportunities to exploit them. Instability and lack of access to critical services caused by the pandemic mean that the number of people vulnerable to exploitation by traffickers is rapidly growing.   To turn the tide, action must accompany words. Among other steps, governments must end state-sponsored forced labor; they must increase prosecutions of human traffickers; and they should expand their efforts to identify and care for trafficking victims, while ensuring they are not punished for crimes traffickers compelled them to commit. The opportunity for impact in the days ahead is great. I am so proud of all who lead us forward in this work, especially our TIP Report Heroes who model the courageous leadership we need for the road ahead. I am grateful for the Trump Administration’s unending commitment to this cause, and for my colleagues at the State Department who have delivered this impressive report under extraordinary circumstances.    We are leading by example as we encourage governments, survivors, NGOs, industry leaders, communities of faith, and advocates in every country to remain steadfast in the protection of human dignity and the pursuit of freedom. Let’s all continue this fight together.  Sincerely, A Bangladeshi sur vivor of sex trafficking stands in front of a window in a shelter. Governments and NGOs often work together to provide specialized, trauma-informed care for trafficking victims. MESSAGE FROM THE AMBASSADOR-AT-LARGE Dear Reader: There has never been a more important moment to engage the fight for freedom. Now, more than ever, we must collectively commit to stopping human traffickers and protecting victims. We will not be deterred from dismantling this crime down to its very foundations and ensuring the protection of future generations. This year, the TIP Report looks into the evolution of the report itself over the past 20 years. Since the passage of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) in 2000, we have faced many challenges as a global community, and the TIP Report has been produced throughout all of them. As we now launch this 20th anniversary report in the midst of the COVID-19 emergency, we are making it clear: neither terrorism nor financial crisis nor a pandemic will stop us from pursuing freedom for victims. As we have continued our work during the COVID-19 pandemic, traffickers have continued as well. Traffickers did not shut down. They continue to harm people, finding ways to innovate and even capitalize on the chaos. The ratio between risk and reward is expanding in their favor. And so, we press on all the more. As the vulnerable become more vulnerable, we remain resolved in our pursuit of freedom for every victim of human trafficking and accountability for every trafficker. This 20th anniversary TIP Report is a powerful tool forged to advance the global community’s commitment to put freedom first. I am grateful to State Department officers around the world, ambassadors, and the Secretary for prioritizing the production of this report. To my intrepid colleagues at the Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (TIP Office), thank you for your perseverance and grit in every detail of this work. You are truly remarkable. Despite the schemes of traffickers, the reality is this: governments across the world, survivors, NGOs, faith communities, and advocates are still at work. For 20 years we have determined that we will not grow weary in our fight for freedom, and we have only just begun. Hope lies ahead. Sincerely, A Senegalese migrant worker displays harvested tomatoes at an Italian tomato farm. Farm owners prey on Africans migrating to Southern Italy to work in the agricultural sector. TABLE OF CONTENTS LOOKING BACK ON TWENTY YEARS OF THE TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT  2 TOPICS OF SPECIAL INTEREST TRAUMA BONDING IN HUMAN TRAFFICKING 20 ACCOUNTABILITY FOR UN PEACEKEEPERS 22 FAITH-BASED EFFORTS TO COMBAT HUMAN TRAFFICKING 24 HUMAN TRAFFICKING OF ATHLETES 26 EXTRATERRITORIAL COMMERCIAL CHILD SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE: EVOLVING INFORMATION AND IMPROVING RESPONSES 28 REENGINEERING HEALTH CARE FOR SURVIVORS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING 30 THE INTERSECTION OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND ADDICTION 32 CHILD SOLDIERS PREVENTION ACT LIST 34 METHODOLOGY38 GLOBAL LAW ENFORCEMENT DATA  43 TVPA MINIMUM STANDARDS 45 2020 TIP REPORT HEROES 47 TIER PLACEMENTS AND REGIONAL MAPS 55 HOW TO READ A COUNTRY NARRATIVE 62 COUNTRY NARRATIVES 63 RELEVANT INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS 548 STOPPING HUMAN TRAFFICKING AND SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE BY INTERNATIONAL PEACEKEEPERS & CIVILIAN PERSONNEL 549 INTERNATIONAL, REGIONAL, AND SUB-REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS COMBATING TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS 550 ANNUAL REPORT ON THE USE OF CHILD SOLDIERS 556 THIS REPORT IS AVAILABLE ONLINE 2020 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT 1 LOOKING BACK ON TWENTY YEARS OF THE TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT This year marks a major milestone—the 20th anniversary of the TIP Report. Twenty years ago, when the United States Congress passed the TVPA mandating this report, it signaled the U.S. government’s resolve to fight human trafficking and marked a pivot from indignation to positive action. Whether used to raise awareness, spark dialogue, spur action, or create a system of accountability, the TIP Report has served to reinforce global anti-trafficking norms and ideals. At a time when many governments denied the existence of human trafficking in all its forms, the TIP Report became a 2 2020 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT standard-bearer for the principles enshrined in the TVPA and the UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol (Palermo Protocol). Throughout the last two decades, and as the availability of information on human trafficking has expanded, the TIP Report has grown in both its breadth and depth of analysis. It has consistently documented the efforts of an increasing number of governments to prosecute traffickers, protect victims, and prevent human trafficking crimes. The report has drawn attention to trends and emerging issues, highlighted promising practices, and tracked the progression of important developments, such as the passage of comprehensive anti-trafficking laws and improvements in victim identification efforts. Over the years, the methodology, content, and design of the TIP Report have evolved, reflecting in many ways the broader anti-trafficking movement’s progress in understanding the crime. The message at the heart of each edition, however, has been steadfast: there is no excuse for human trafficking, and governments must address it with bold action. Most of all, the TIP Report has been, and continues to be, a critical tool in bringing governments to the table and encouraging them to prioritize human trafficking. Diplomats and advocates apply pressure on governments around the world to ensure they maintain focus and hear the voices of those directly affected. Today, the vast majority of governments acknowledge the devastating effects of human trafficking, and most governments have taken steps to combat it. TERMINOLOGY The United States considers “trafficking in persons,” “human trafficking,” and “modern slavery” to be interchangeable umbrella terms that refer to both sex and labor trafficking. The TVPA and the Palermo Protocol describe this compelled ser vice using a number of different terms, including involuntary servitude, slavery or practices similar to slavery, debt bondage, and forced labor. The introduction this year will provide a look back at the evolution of the TIP Report. It is a celebration of 20 years documenting progress in combating human trafficking and, as always, a candid reminder of the work yet to be done. BACKGROUND Human trafficking became a topic of public concern in the 1990s due, in part, to the fall of the former Soviet Union, the resulting migration flows, and the increasing concern about the growth of transnational criminal organizations operating globally. Intelligence reports pointed to sex trafficking and forms of forced labor as some of these organizations’ largest sources of profit. The first efforts to address trafficking in persons focused heavily on combating the sex trafficking of women and girls. Academic reports and news articles illustrated the effect traffickers were having on individuals and communities around the world. In 1994, the Department of State began to monitor human trafficking as part of the Department’s Annual Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, focusing exclusively on sex trafficking of women and girls. As the understanding of human trafficking expanded, the U.S. government, in collaboration with NGOs, identified the need for specific legislation to address how traffickers operate and to provide the legal tools necessary to combat trafficking in persons in all its forms. The 106th Congress of the United States passed the TVPA in 2000, the first comprehensive federal law designed to protect victims of sex and labor trafficking, prosecute traffickers, and prevent human trafficking in the United States and abroad. The TVPA requires the Secretary of State to submit an annual report to Congress that ranks governments’ efforts to combat trafficking in persons. The original threetier ranking system was created to indicate how well other governments complied with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking laid out in the law. In July 2001, the Department of State published the first TIP Report. While the TVPA only called for a ranking of governments, those involved in the preparation of the first report included a brief explanation for the tier rankings to provide clarity and context to the report. The first TIP Report included 82 country narratives based on information received from embassies and consulates abroad, which gathered information including from host governments and law enforcement officials, NGOs, U.S. agencies, and journalists. It was only 103 pages long and included brief twoparagraph descriptions of each country’s efforts to combat human trafficking. Hu m a n t r a f f i c k i n g erodes personal dignity and destroys the moral fabric of society. It is an affront to humanity that tragically reaches all parts of the world. President Donald J. Trump 2020 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT 3 The report’s production in the early years was a monumental task for the newly established TIP Office. It required the small staff to create simultaneously both a methodology for the report and processes for gathering data, drafting narratives, and assessing government efforts. Perhaps most challenging for the TIP Office and posts overseas was the effort to gather data from other governments, many of which had never developed systematic measures for collecting human trafficking data nor shared such data before. In addition, the report would be the first of its kind to rank countries publicly on their efforts to combat human trafficking, a crime newly denounced by the international community. At the time, inclusion in the report depended on whether there was evidence of a “significant number” of victims in a given country, though the U.S. Congress did not specify what it considered to be a “significant number.” Once the drafters of the first report received reporting from all the U.S. embassies, which included information on the estimated number of victims in each country, they determined that 100 or more victims would be the threshold number, taking into account that for small countries this would be a high threshold but for large countries a low one. The report pointed to a dearth of reliable information to explain the exclusion of so many countries and called attention to the need for more governments to develop mechanisms to detect and report on human trafficking. THE EVOLUTION OF THE TIP REPORT Since 2001, the TIP Report has continued to evolve in both substance and design. Stylistically, the 2003 TIP Report went through one of the most noticeable visual transformations. This report was the first to feature a colorful front cover with the signature eyes and a letter from the Secretary of State, as well as compelling photos and images, victim stories, and a list of international “promising practices” in combating human trafficking. The narrative text of the introductory section evolved from providing minimal explanation of human trafficking and the purpose of the report, to covering a variety of human trafficking issues and current trends. Over time, the introduction began to cover concrete themes and a collection of special topics interspersed throughout. Though not mandated by Congress, the introduction has in many ways become a public outreach tool in and of itself. Every person, everywhere, is inherently vested with profound, inherent, equal d ig n it y. A mer ica wa s founded on a promise to defend those rights— including life, liberty, and the pursuit of justice. But too often we’ve fallen short, and we cannot fall short on this challenge. Michael R. Pompeo U.S. Secretary of State 4 2020 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT In addition, the report methodology and content changed as the years progressed. Congress made many of these alterations through amendments to the TVPA and its reauthorizations. Others reflect policy priorities and efforts to provide clarification and justification for the tier rankings and country narratives. Some of the most important changes are listed on pages 6-7. VICTIMS OF TRAFFICKING AND VIOLENCE PROTECTION ACT OF 2000 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT JULY 2001 VICTIM STORIES The victim stories included in this report are meant to be illustrative. They characterize the many—though not all—forms of human trafficking and the wide variety of places in which they occur, although each could take place almost anywhere in the world. Many are based on real experiences and the victims’ names have been changed as a result. In most cases, the photographs that accompany the stories are not images of confirmed trafficking victims. Still, they illustrate the myriad schemes human traffickers use and the variety of situations in which trafficking victims are exploited. 2020 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT 5 Rohingya refugees endure on foot the long journey from Burma to Bangladesh. Refugees, asylum-seekers, internally displaced and stateless persons, and others in need of protection, security, and national identity documents remain highly vulnerable to human trafficking. THE EVOLUTION OF THE TIP REPORT 2000 The TVPA passed, creating the TIP Office and mandating the annual TIP Report. 2001 The first TIP Report ranked countries on one of three tiers and briefly described 82 governments’ efforts to combat human trafficking. 2003 TIP Report narratives began using the “3P” paradigm – prosecution, protection, and prevention – to assess and describe government efforts. Pursuant to the TVPA, countries ranked on Tier 3 faced for the first time potential restrictions that included the loss of certain types of U.S. assistance. Thirty new countries were included in the report, with 116 in total, marking a major increase in the amount of information available on governmental efforts to combat human trafficking. 2004 Another 15 countries were added to the report, jumping from 116 to 131, as a result of an increase in the volume of information generated from a greater understanding of human trafficking around the world. The TIP Report ranked 42 countries on the Tier 2 Watch List. The 2003 reauthorization of the TVPA mandated this new ranking. The report also applied new criteria pursuant to the 2003 reauthorization in determining if governments were making sufficient efforts to eliminate trafficking, including whether they made “appreciable progress” as compared to the previous year. The TIP Report featured a new section on TIP Report Heroes to highlight the importance of individual action to combat human trafficking. 2008 The William Wilberforce Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act of 2008 widened the scope of countries in the TIP Report by striking the requirement that a “significant number” of victims be documented for a country to be listed. The report grew from analyzing 154 countries in 2008 to 173 countries the following year. In an effort to incentivize continuous improvement, the reauthorization limited the number of consecutive years a country could remain on the Tier 2 Watch List to two consecutive years, after which it would be automatically downgraded to Tier 3 should it fail to make improvements that would warrant an upgrade. Countries could receive a waiver to remain on the Tier 2 Watch List for two additional years if they had a written action plan and resources dedicated to its implementation. The 2008 reauthorization also included the Child Soldiers Prevention Act (CSPA), mandating the inclusion of a list in the TIP Report of foreign governments that had been found to have unlawfully recruited or used child soldiers. Beginning in the 2008 TIP Report, all country narratives included recommendations for governments to improve their anti-trafficking efforts—a vital component of the report today. 6 2020 TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT 2010 To ensure it held itself to the same standards it applied to all other countries, the TIP Report included a ranking of the United States for the first time. Before 2010, the TIP Report had included a separate section on the United States, summarizing its efforts to combat trafficking in persons. 2011 The CSPA List was included for the first time in the annual TIP Report and included six countries: Burma, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen. The automatic downgrade provision called for in the 2008 reauthorization applied for the first time in 2011 to 20 countries that had been ranked on Tier 2 Watch List for both 2009 and 2010. Seven of those countries were ranked Tier 3 in 2011, and 13 of them received waivers to remain on the Tier 2 Watch List. 2013 Governments that received waivers to remain on Tier 2 Watch List in both 2011 and 2012 faced the automatic downgrade for the first time in 2013. The Department ranked China, Russia, and Uzbekistan on Tier 3 that year. 2014 TIP Report assessments integrated the changes of the 2013 reauthorization and added new factors to be considered as indicia of efforts to eliminate trafficking, including efforts to prevent human trafficking perpetrated or facilitated by diplomats or peacekeepers deployed abroad and to prosecute such public officials, as well as efforts to engage in effective government partnerships with a range of civil society and other actors. 2017 A Government Accountability Office report (as noted on page 27 of the 2017 TIP Report) issued on December 5, 2016, included several recommendations to improve the clarity and usefulness of the TIP Report. These included recommen...
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