Biolog 3 - Chapter 3: Molecules of Life A. Structure to...

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Chapter 3: Molecules of Life A. Structure to function Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids are the four main biological molecules Carbon backbone, bonding arrangements *STRUCTURE DETERMINES FUNCTION* Models – ball and stick, space-filling, ribbon B. Organic compounds 5 reaction types Functional – group transfer, molecules to molecules, give and take Electron transfer – electrons transfer to other molecules Rearrangement – internal bonds convert organic compounds Condensation – 2 molecules create larger molecule (i.e. H + +OH - H 2 O) Cleavage – large molecule breaks down to 2 molecules (extra) Hydrolysis – O + H 2 O OH + OH Small organic compounds Sugars Fatty acids Amino acids Nucleotides Ducts and tubules in testosterone/estrogen become male and female traits (same carbon structure, different functions) C. Carbohydrates Most abundant, Sugar = saccharide Mono, Di – lactose Oligo (few) – proteins, lipids, side chains Poly (many) – cellulose, starch, glycogen (glucose w/ diff covalent bonds)
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Starch – coils, easily hydrolyzed (i.e. OH) Cellulose – side to side hydrogen bond, resists hydrolysis, part of cell walls, tough, fiber-like, insoluble, resists mechanical stress (i.e. OH – O – CH 2 OH) Glycogen – same as cellulose, but in animals. When sugar level in blood is low, glucose is released by glycogen degradation. (i.e. OH – O – CH
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2011 for the course CHEM BIO P 101 taught by Professor Kk during the Spring '11 term at Rochester.

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Biolog 3 - Chapter 3: Molecules of Life A. Structure to...

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