Biolog 8 - Chapter 8: Cells release chemical energy A....

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Chapter 8: Cells release chemical energy A. Anaerobic Respiration 1. Glycolysis - the process by which a cell uses O 2 to "burn" molecules and release energy Occurs in the cytosol, outside the mitochondrion During glycolysis, glucose, a six carbon-sugar, is split into two three-carbon sugars. The steps of glycolysis can be divided into two phases: an energy investment phase and an energy payoff phase. In the energy investment phase, the cell invests 2 ATP to provide activation energy by phosphorylating glucose. In the energy payoff phase, 4 ATP are produced and NAD + is reduced to NADH by electrons released by the oxidation of glucose. The NADH produced passes the electrons to the electron transport chain. Energy released from the oxidation is used to attach a phosphate to PGAL . The resulting 2 phosphate compound immediately gives up one of the phosphates to ADP and two ATP are created. The cell has capitalized on the fact that oxidation reactions release energy. The product, pyruvate (or pyruvic acid) is the starting material for the next step (the Krebs cycle) and it enters the mitochondrion where that occurs. Note that glycolysis can occur whether O 2 is present or not. B. Anaerobic (fermentation) vs. Aerobic Respiration
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Biolog 8 - Chapter 8: Cells release chemical energy A....

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