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Biolog 21 - Chapter 21 Prokaryotes and Viruses I...

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Chapter 21: Prokaryotes and Viruses I. Prokaryotic cells A. Characteristics 1. No membrane-bound nucleus 2. Generally a single chromosome 3. Cell wall present in most species 4. Reproduction mainly by prokaryotic fission 5. Collectively, great metabolic diversity among species B. Shapes 1. Coccus – spherical shape of a bacteria 2. Bacillus – rod shape of a bacteria 3. Spirillum – cell body with twists C. Structure Cell walls encloses plasma membrane Gram staining helps identify bacterial species by their wall staining properties Glycocalyx encloses the cell wall and consists of polysaccharides and polypeptides Have flagella that help with movement Pili help cell adhere to places D. Growth and Reproduction Prokaryotic (binary) fission – cell replicates its DNA and the cuts the cytoplasm into two creating two genetically equivalent daughter cells Conjugation – fertility plasmid that transfer of DNA without fusion Classifying as bacteria and archaea E. Bacteria
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