Exam 1 study guide

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Unformatted text preview: DEPARTMENTOFBIOLOGICALSCIENCES,TSU BIOL1120:GENERALBIOLOGYII STUDYGUIDEFORTEST#1COVERINGCHAPTERS25THROUGH28ANDSCHEDULEDTOHOLDTUESDAY,SEPTEMBER27,2011   1)Describethecorrectsequenceofeventsintheoriginoflife. 2)ThefirstgenesonEarthwereprobably,what? 3)Describetheuseofradiometricmeansmeanstodeterminetheabsoluteageoffossils  4)Approximatelyhowfarbackintimedoesthefossilrecordextend?  5)Whatisthestrongestevidencethatprokaryotesevolvedbeforeeukaryotes? 6)Whatisthesignificanceoffossilizedstromatolitesintheevolutionoflifeonearth? 7)TheoxygenrevolutionchangedEarth'senvironmentdramatically.Which organismstookadvantageofthepresenceoffree oxygenintheoceansandatmosphere? 8)Whichofthefourstepsintheevolutionoflifeonearthhasnotyetbeenaccomplishedbyscientistsstudyingtheoriginoflife?  9)Theleglessconditionthatisobservedinseveralgroupsofextantreptiles.Howdidthisarise? 10)Onwhatbasisdothevarioustaxonomiclevels(namely,genera,classes,etc.)ofthehierarchicalclassificationsystemdifferfrom eachother? 11)Whatishomoplasy?Giveexamplesoffeaturesinwhichthetermis mostapplicable 12)Whatwouldyouconsidertobethebestclassificationsystem? 13)Howimportantarecomputersandcomputersoftwaretomoderncladistics  14)Whenusingacladisticapproachtosystematics,whatarethemostimportantfeaturesforclassificationshouldbeconsidered? 15)Whatkindofevidencehasrecentlymadeitnecessarytoassigntheprokaryotestoeitheroftwodifferentdomains,rathert han assigningallprokaryotestothesamekingdom? 16)Membersofwhichkingdom  ­Kingdomclassification)havecellwallsandareallheterotrophic?  17)Whichkingdom  ­Kingdomclassification)hasbeenreplacedwithtwodomains? 18)DescribeMycoplasmas 19)Describebacterialcellwalls? 20)Jams,jellies,preserves,honey,andotherfoodstuffswithhighsugarcontenthardlyeverbecomecontaminatedbybacteria, even whenthefoodcontainersareleftopenatroomtemperature. Why? 21)Prokaryoticribosomesdifferfromthosepresentineukar yoticcytosol.Whatisthesignificanceofthisintheuseofantibaioticsin thetreatmentofbacterialinfections? 22)Describethegenomesofprokaryotes 23)Describetheimportanceofthefollowingstructuresinthebacteriathatpossessthem: sexpilus,endospore,capsule,cellwall 24)Describethefollowingfeaturesexplainingwheretheyarefound  25)Whatistheprimarysourceofvariationinprokaryotepopulations? 26)Describethefollowingprocesses.Howaretheyinter ­related? 27)Explainthefollowingnutritionalmodes:autotroph,heterotrophy,phototroph,chemotroph 28)Distinguishamongthefollowingnutritionalmodes:photoautotrophs,parasiticchemoheterotrophs,chemoheterotrophsthat performdecomposition,photoheterotrophs,chemoautotrophs 29)CarlWoeseandcollaboratorsidentifiedtwomajorbranchesofprokaryoticevolution.Whatwasthebasisfordividing prokaryotesintotwodomains? 30)Assumingthateachofthesepossessesacellwall,whichprokaryotesshouldbee xpectedtobemoststronglyresistantto plasmolysisinhypertonicenvironments?Cyanobacteria,extremehalophiles,nitrogen ­fixingbacteriathatliveinrootnodules, extremethermophiles,methanogens 31)Ingeneral,whatistheprimaryecologicalroleofprokaryotes?  32)IfallprokaryotesonEarthsuddenlyvanished,whatwouldbethemostlikelyandmostdirectresult? 33)Howisantibioticresistancetransferredamongprokaryotes?  34)Describetheprocesses:transformation,transduction,conjugation 35)Whatarethefunctionsofthefollowingprokaryoticstructuresintheorganismsthatpossesthem? Capsule,pili,fimbriae,a flagellum,acellwallwithanouterlipopolysaccharidemembrane. 36)Whichofthefollowingprocessesareimportantingeneticvariationinbacterialpopulations?Transformation,mutation,meiosis, transduction,conjugation 37)Listthedifferencesbetweenarchaeaandbacteria 38)Whatarebiofilmsandhowaretheyformed?  39)Definesymbiosisanddescribe,withexamplesthevarioustypes.  40)PlantlikephotosynthesisthatreleasesO 2occursinvariousgroupsoforganisms.List,asmuchaspossible,thegroupsthat performthisfunction 41)Morphologicalandnutritionallyspeaking,protistsarehighlydiverse.Whatfeatureiscommontoallofthem?  42)Accordingtotheendosymbiotictheoryoftheoriginofeukaryoticcells,howdidmitochondriaoriginate?  43)Anindividualmixotrophlosesitsplastids,yetcontinuestosurvive.Howwouldyouexplainitscontinuedsurvival? 44)Whichcharacteristicdidlandplantsderivefromanancestralcyanobacterium? 45)Describethemorphologicalcharacteristicsofdinoflagellates 46)Youaregivenanunknownorganismtoidentify.Itisunicellularandheterotrophic.Itismotile,usingmanyshortextensionsof thecytoplasm,eachfeaturingthe9+2filamentpattern.Ithaswell  ­developedorganellesandthreenuclei,onelargeandtwosmall. Thisorganismismostlikelytobeamemberofwhichgroup? 47)Alargeseaweedthatfloatsfreelyonthesurfaceofdeepbodiesofwaterwouldbeexpectedtolack what? 48)Describethecharacteristicfeaturesofthefollowing: foraminiferans,gymnamoebas,radiolarians,diatoms 49)Abiologistdiscoversanalgathatismarine,multicellular,andlivesatadepthreachedonlybybluelight.Thisalgapro bably belongstowhichgroup? 50)Howdogreenalgaedifferfromlandplants? 51)Giardialambliaisanintestinalparasiteofhumansandothermammalsthatcausesintestinalailmentsinmostpeoplewhoingest thecysts.Uponingestion,eachcystreleasestwomotilecells,calledtrophozoites.Theseattachtothesmallintestine'sli ningviaa ventraladhesivedisk.Thetrophozoitesanaerobicallymetabolizeglucosefromthehost'sintestinalcontentstoproduceATP. Reproductioniscompletelyasexual,occurringbylongitudinalbinaryfissionoftrophozoites,witheachdaughtercellreceivi ngtwo, haploidnuclei(n=5).Atrophozoitewilloftenencystasitpassesintothelargeintestinebysecretingarounditselfacasethat is resistanttocold,heat,anddehydration.Infectionusuallyoccursbydrinkinguntreatedwaterthatcontainscysts. Whichfeatureof somebacteriaisanalogoustothecyctsofGiardia? 52)HealthyindividualsofParameciumbursariacontainphotosyntheticalgalendosymbiontsofthegenus Chlorella.Whenwithin theirhosts,thealgaearereferredtoaszoochlorellae.Inaquariawith lightcomingfromonlyoneside,P.bursariagathersatthe well ­litside,whereasotherspeciesofParameciumgatherattheoppositeside.Thezoochlorellaeprovidetheirhostswithglucose andoxygen,andP.bursariaprovidesitszoochlorellaewithprotectionandmotility.P.bursariacanloseitszoochlorellaeintwoways: (1)ifkeptindarkness,thealgaewilldie;and(2)ifpreyitems(mostlybacteria)areabsentfromitshabitat, P.bursariawilldigestits zoochlorellae.WhichofthefollowingtermsmostaccuratelydescribesthenutritionalmodeofhealthyP.bursaria? Chemoautotroph,photoheterotroph,mixotroph,chemoheterotroph,photoautotroph, 57)Whichprotistsareinthesameeukaryoticsupergroupaslandplants ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course BIO 200 taught by Professor Ejiofor during the Fall '11 term at TN State.

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