Abstract for Robert Kelly

Abstract for Robert Kelly - Early stone toolmakers...

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Abstract ABSTRACT “Lithic Analysis: Chipped Stone Tools and Waste Flakes in Archaeology” by Robert Kelly Lithic analysis is the study of stone tools and waste flakes from their manufacture and maintenance. Stone tools and waste flakes are the earliest record of tool making by our ancestors. Archaeologists have to distinguish between tools made by humans and rocks shaped through natural processes. One way to determine if it is a tool is to compare where the rock is found with where the rock originally came from. If the tool is located at a higher elevation than the rock’s original location, a human was probably involved. Also, archaeologists can set up experiments to simulate how the stones break apart through various natural processes to get an idea of how frequently tool shapes appear. They can compare this to how many tools they find in the site.
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Unformatted text preview: Early stone toolmakers primarily used flint, chert, jasper, and obsidian. They used the direct percussion method for making their tools. In direct percussion, the toolmaker strikes the stone (core) with a hammer. There are two types of hammers: hard and soft. Hard hammers are typically fist-size cobblestones, and soft hammers are typically antlers or wood. A more refined method, indirect percussion uses a hard hammer with an antler punch for a more direct force against the core. After removing the flake from the core, early peoples could further modify the flake by knapping it from both sides. This results in a bifacial tool. Using these methods, the humans created projectile points for hunting, scrapers for scraping, and drills for drilling....
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