Chapter 2 Chemical Level of Organization

Chapter 2 Chemical Level of Organization - Chapter 2 The...

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Chapter 2 The Chemical Level of Organization Pages 43 – 57 1. Must be familiar with the following terms: pH –Measure of the concentration of H + ions in solution. hydrophilic – Water loving hydrophobic - Water Fearing polar – Unequal sharing of electrons nonpolar – Equal sharing of electrons buffer – Chemical compounds that can convert strong acids/bases weak acids/bases anabolism – Synthesis/Building Up catabolism – Decomposition/Breaking Down 2. Organic Compounds – Contains Carbon and Hydrogen…sometimes with oxygen, held by covalent bonds. A. Carbon Skeleton –Chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule B. Functional Groups Table 2.5 – Specific arrangement of atoms that confers characteristic chemical properties on the organic model attached to it. Hydroxyl (Glycerol/OH), Sulfhydryl (Disulfide Bonds/Cysteine/SH), Carboxyl (Acid/COOH) C. Macromolecules – Small organic molecules that combine into very large molecules a. DNA, RNA, Proteins, Starch D. Polymers – A large molecule formed by the covalent bonding of many identical or similar small building blocks. E. Monomers – The small repeating building blocks that make polymers. Starch and glycogen (polymers) are formed from glucose (monomers). 3. Carbohydrates: Table 2.6 i. Sugars, Glycogen, Starches, and Cellulose. Source of chemical energy for generating ATP needed to drive metabolic reactions. ii. C n (H 2 O) n is the general form…takes 2-3% of total body mass. A. Monosaccharides – Monomers of Carbohydrates 1. Such as glucose, fructose, deoxyribose… B. Disaccharides Fig. 2.15 – Molecule formed from the combination of two monosaccharides by dehydration synthesis. 1. Sucrose: Glucose+Fructose 1 Simple Sugars
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C. Polysaccharides Fig. 2.16 – Tens of hundreds of monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis. 1.
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course BIO 301 taught by Professor Rupade during the Spring '09 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.

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Chapter 2 Chemical Level of Organization - Chapter 2 The...

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