Chapter 16 Sensory Motor, and Integrative Systems

Chapter 16 Sensory Motor, and Integrative Systems - Chapter...

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Chapter 16 Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems Pages 569 – 573; 575; 578 – 586; 588 – 593 1. Sensation: Conscious or subconscious awareness. Perception: Knowing what is going on Conscious awareness and interpretation. Stretch Reflex: Sensory input Spinal Cord Brain Stem. ..Then don’t worry about heart/breathing rate. o Sensory Input Thalamus: Crude Awareness o Sensory Input Cerebral Cortes: Much more fine tuned and memory storage…complete awareness. A. Sensory Modalities: Unique type of sensation…such as touch, pain, and vision i. General Senses: Somatic and Visceral Senses Somatic: Includes touch, thermal, pain, and proprioceptive (perception of moving and nonmoving body positions) sensations. Visceral: Includes information about the internal organs . ii. Special Senses: Sensory modalities such as smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium or balance. B. The Process of Sensation Sensory Receptor: A specialized cell or dendrite of a sensory neuron. Stimulus: A change in the environment that can activate certain sensory receptors. Selectivity: Characteristics of sensory receptors o Picks up only one type of sensation (very specific) i. Stimulation of the Sensory Receptor: Must occur in the receptive field, the body region where stimulation activates the receptor and produces a response. Dendrite/specialized cell ii. Transduction of the Stimulus: Converts energy in a stimulus into a graded potential. Electrical Signal Each sensory receptor can transducer only one kind of stimulus. iii. Generation of Impulses: When threshold is reached, can trigger one or more nerve impulses. Action Potential First Order Neurons: Sensory neurons that conduct impulses from PNS CNS. iv. Integration of Sensory Input: Particular regions of the CNS ( cerebral cortex) receive and integrate the sensory nerve impulses.
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Electrical signal must be strong enough C. Sensory Receptors: Fig. 16.1 i. Types of Sensory Receptors Free Nerve Endings: Bare dendrites ; receptors for pain, touch, temperature, tickle, tich, and others o Carry from peripheral Central: 1 st order neurons. Encapsulated Nerve Endings: Dendrites enclosed in a connective tissue capsule; Receptors for pressure, vibration, and some touch sensations. o More specific and sensitivity Separate Cells: Synapses with sensory neurons… Special Senses o Can be hair cells, gustatory receptor cells, or photoreceptors ; Called special cells
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ii. Graded Potentials All sent to CNS Generator potentials: When it reaches a threshold, it triggers one or more nerve impulses…generate an action potential o Is a graded potential and will depend on the strength of the stimulus. o
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Chapter 16 Sensory Motor, and Integrative Systems - Chapter...

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