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Lecture_1 - Lecture 1 Introduction and Cultural Relativism...

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Lecture 1: Introduction and Cultural Relativism I. General information of the course II. Introduction to Biomedical Ethics III. Cultural Relativism
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II. Introduction to Biomedical Ethics
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We discussing no small matter, but how we ought to live. Socrates -Morality refers to traditions of belief about right and wrong human conduct. Morality is a social institution with a history and a code of learnable rules and conventions. Tom L. Beauchamp -Morality is, at the very least, the effort to guide one’s conduct by reason-that is, to do what there are the best reasons for doing-while giving equal weight to the interests of each individual who will be affected by one’s conduct. James Rachels What is Morality?
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-Ethics is a generic term covering several different ways of examining and understanding the moral life. The field of ethics includes the study of social morality as well as philosophical reflection on its norms and practices. -Ethical theory and Moral philosophy refer to philosophical reflection on morality. -Biomedical Ethics is a branch of ethics that deals with socially controversial issues related to medicine, biology, and biotechnology. What is Ethics and Biomedical Ethics? Beauchamp and Childress, “Principles of Biomedical Ethics,” 6 th ed., chapter 1
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What is ethics in this class? 1. Endeavor to examine existing rules 2. Reflection on our own moral convictions 3. Rational reasoning about what we really ought to do, what rules we should follow, and what moral beliefs we should foster in ourselves. Nakano-Okuno
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1. Mere expression of one’s personal moral beliefs 2. Teachings about how to abide by existing rules 3. Unquestioning acceptance and application of what some other authority is telling us to do What is ethics not in this class? Nakano-Okuno
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Three Types of Ethical Questions We will Ask 1) What do you think you ought to do in a particular situation? 2) What do you think an individual , not only you, ought to do in a particular situation? 3) Which public rule (principle, policy, regulation, etc.) should an individual (or individuals) ought to adopt and to usually act according to? Nakano-Okuno
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Moral Dilemmas -Dilemmas occur whenever one has good reasons for mutually exclusive alternatives. If one set of reasons is acted upon, events will result that are desirable in some respects but undesirable in others.
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