Australopiths 2

Australopiths 2 - A. Africanus (South Africa) (South Taung...

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Unformatted text preview: A. Africanus (South Africa) (South Taung Child Taung Little Foot Little Paleoanthropologist Ronald Clarke carefully Paleoanthropologist excavates an australopithecine skeleton, nicknamed “Little Foot,” from the limestone matrix at Sterkfontein cave. matrix Brain Still Quite Small Brain On average the brain On is a bit larger than Australopithecus afarensis but still in the range of 400-500 cc. cc. Similar limb Similar proportions and degree of sexual dimorphism to A. afarensis afarensis U-Shaped Dental Arcade U-Shaped Some traits derived relative to A. afarensis A. Deeper jaw joint Deeper Less projecting face Less No Diastema/larger molars No Australopithecus africanus Brain a bit larger than A. afarensis Similar body size, sexual dimorphism U-shaped dental arcade Ape-like limb proportions Infant development like Pan Derived traits rel to A. afarensis deeper jaw joint no diastema face not as projecting larger cheek teeth Reconstructing Hominid Lifeways Lifeways • What were What australopithecine lifeways like? lifeways Australopith Social Systems High levels of sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus suggestive of strong intrasexual selection and polygynous social system Clues about our past from chimpanzees chimpanzees • Hunting • Food-sharing • Tool use Gombe, Tanzania Chimpanzee Hunting and Tool Use Use Provides a model for australopithecine Provides hunting and tool use hunting Australopithecines had better manual Australopithecines dexterity than chimps, probably used tools tools Meat—may have been shared by Meat—may australopithecines as it is in chimp groups australopithecines Chimpanzee dietary differences by sex Males get more fat & protein from hunted Males animals animals Females get more fat & protein from nuts, Females insects (more active tool users) insects Australopithecines: Hominds that were more ape-like than human-like more Graciles found in mixed habitats always Graciles with woodland, robusts may have used more “open” habitats as well more Not fully committed bipeds: still spent Not considerable time in trees considerable Intrasexual selection important Probably used simple tools, ate a more Probably varied array of foods than chimpanzees: fruit, nuts, tubers, leaves, small mammals, with robust australopithecines relying at least seasonally on hard to process foods least Habitat at 3 Ma Habitat Habitat by 2.5 Ma Habitat At Approximately 2.5 Ma At Gracile australopithecines disappear Early Homo and robust Early Homo australopiths (Paranthropus) appear australopiths 1st archeological sites Frequently related to late Pliocene Frequently environmental change environmental Paranthropus/Early Homo Paranthropus/Early Homo Questions Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Who are the gracile australopithecines? What are some ape-like characteristics seen in A. What afarensis? afarensis What are some derived characteristics? What are some differences between A. afarensis and What A. A. africanus? A. What environmental changes took place between 2-3 What million years ago? million What happened as a result of these changes? What are some things we can learn about Hominid What lifeways from watching chimpanzees? lifeways Have a nice day! Have A. garhi, llast gracile ast A. australopithecine in East Africa at 2.5 Ma Africa Hadar, A. afarensis mandible on slope ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course ANTHRO 102 taught by Professor F during the Spring '11 term at CUNY Queens.

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