modern humans for BB part 1

Modern humans for - Chapter 14 Chapter The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans Homo sapiens Homo Sometime probably close to 200,000 years

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 14 Chapter The Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans Homo sapiens Homo Sometime, probably close to 200,000 years Sometime, ago, the first modern Homo sapiens evolved in Homo Africa. Africa. Within 150,000 years or so, their descendants Within had spread across most of the Old World, even expanding as far as Australia. All contemporary populations—more than 6 All billion living humans—are placed within this species (and the same subspecies as well). species The Modern Human Skull The AMH=anatomically AMH=anatomically modern human modern Brain size avg 1340 cc Short, high braincase Sides of braincase Sides roughly parallel roughly Short face tucked Short underneath frontal lobes of brain of Mandible with chin Mandible (inverted T) (inverted Chin: inverted T Braincase with parallel sides Where do modern humans come from? come Models of Modern Human Origins Origins Complete Replacement Model Regional Continuity Model Partial Replacement Model Complete Replacement Model (Out of Africa) (Out Proposes anatomically modern populations Proposes arose in Africa in the last 200,000 years. arose They migrated from Africa, completely They replacing populations in Europe and Asia. replacing NO INTERBREEDING!!! Does not account for the transition from archaic Does H. sapiens to modern H. sapiens anywhere H. H. except Africa. except Complete Replacement Model H. sapiens evolve in Africa, replace more archaic forms of humans elsewhere Allopatric Speciation Allopatric Regional Continuity Model Regional (Multiregional Evolution) Early modern H. sapiens did not originate Early H. exclusively in Africa but appeared in each geographic region simultaneously. geographic Populations in Europe, Asia, and Africa Populations continued evolutionary development from precontinued modern humans to anatomically modern modern humans. humans. Due to gene flow between archaic populations, Due modern humans are not a separate species. modern Resulted in the regional variation seen today in Resulted modern human populations. modern Regional populations of H. heidelbergensis in Africa, Europe and Asia were linked by gene flow. This allowed archaic humans to evolve into modern humans as a single species across the entire Old World. However, traits specific to hominids in a particular region could arise (like shovel-shaped incisors in Asia). East & SE Asian fossil record used to support regional continuity Short face Forward oriented cheek bones Shovel-shaped incisors In East & SE Asia In Few well dated fossils from 30 – 200 Ky No good evidence to date of local No evolution to H. sapiens H. BUT….Regional Continuity model can’t work for Europe, where Neanderthals don’t evolve into H. sapiens sapiens Partial Replacement Model Partial Homo sapiens originate in Africa. Moving into Eurasia, modern humans Moving hybridized with resident groups, eventually replacing them. The disappearance of pre-modern was The due to hybridization and replacement. due What Does Genetic Evidence Tell Us About Modern Human Origins? Modern Nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA and cranial shape all exhibit greatest diversity within Africa. This is consistent with the modern human genome originating in Africa Neanderthal mtDNA largely outside range of variation of modern human mtDNA; 300-600 Ky period of isolation/divergence? Neanderthal Genome Project Neanderthal First draft of the First genome completed February 2009. February Early analysis Early reveals no trace of Neanderthal genes in modern humans. modern Omo 1 and 2, Ethiopia: 195,000 years old Herto, Ethiopia, 160 ky Herto, High vault Reduced face tucked underneath frontal lobes Slab-sided vault Brow ridges strong, but reduced relative to earlier forms EARLY H. sapiens !! The evolution of modern humans humans Like Neandertals, modern humans Like descend from Homo heidelbergensis Homo Unlike Neandertals, the transitional Unlike fossils are in Africa fossils The transition from H. heidelbergensis to AMH occurs in Africa 100 – 200 Ky Middle East was a boundary between AMH in Africa and Neanderthals in Eurasia from approx. 40 Ky to 90 Ky Shanidar 1 Both used Mousterian tools Anatomically Modern human From Qafzeh Early Modern Human Migration Migration Upper Paleolithic Art and Technology Technology Skeleton of two Skeleton teenagers, a male and a female, from Sungir, Russia. Sungir, Dated 24,000 ya, this Dated is the richest find of any Upper Paleolithic grave. grave. Chauvet Pont D’Arc, approx. 31 Ky, France Discovered by amateur cave explorers, December, 1994 http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/chauvet/en/index.html http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/chauvet/en/index.html ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course ANTHRO 102 taught by Professor F during the Spring '11 term at CUNY Queens.

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