Oldowan and lifeways

Oldowan and lifeways - Paranthropus Early Paranthropus...

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Unformatted text preview: Paranthropus, Early Paranthropus Early Homo and the Oldowan Homo Global Cooling & Drying Changed Habitat Distribution Changed Climatic change decreased rainfall and increased rainfall seasonality Global climate change causes changes in hominid evolution: changes Gracile australopithecines become Gracile extinct. extinct. Two new forms of hominid appear: Paranthropus (Robust australopiths) Paranthropus (Robust Early Homo Early Homo Robust Australopiths Robust Not an Australopithecus Not Genus: Paranthropus Genus: Paranthropus The are called robust australopiths The because they show many of the same adaptations for eating hard foods as graciles. graciles. Paranthropus takes these adaptations to the extreme (Many adaptations for powerful chewing). powerful P. Boisei (East Africa) (East P. Robustus (South Africa) Huge premolars and Molars/Tiny incisors Molars/Tiny Large, deep mandible Large, Flat face, broad cheek bones Flat Sagittal crest Sagittal Seasonal variation in diet? Seasonal Still many primitive (ape-like) characteristics characteristics Brains still small (410-520 cc.) Brains Body size and degree of sexual dimorphism similar to gracile australopiths australopiths Teeth and jaws are robust, not their bodies!!! Chimpanzee, A. afarensis, Human A. U-shaped U-shaped Parabolic Robust Australopithecines: GRINDING MACHINES! 1 – 2.7 Ma, East and South Africa Brain a bit larger than A. afarensis, ca. 410-520 cc Body size, degree of sexual dimorphism similar to gracile australopiths U-shaped dental arcade Relied at least seasonally on harder foods than graciles: Giant jaws Premolars and molars enormous Tiny incisors and canines Large cheekbones, dish-shaped face Sagittal crest for temporalis muscle May have used bone tools for termiting ca. 2.5 Ma earliest Homo also appears Homo habilis Homo H. habilis cranial capacity: 500-650 cc Large Brain, Less Projecting Face All members genus Homo have parabolic dental arcades H. habilis, OH7 -Smaller Jaws and teeth -Opposite to the trend seen in Australopithecus Body form similar Body to australopiths Small stature Ape-like limb Ape-like proportions proportions • • • • Earliest Homo Homo East and South Africa Large brains Large compared to australopiths (500-800 cc) cc) Less projecting faces Less than earlier hominids, parabolic dental arcades, smaller jaws and teeth than robust australopiths australopiths Bodies still small and Bodies ape-like. ape-like. Trends seen in the genus Homo Homo Larger brains. Smaller teeth. While Paranthropus is growing larger teeth While Paranthropus to eat harder foods, Early Homo start using Homo tools to process foods outside the mouth. tools Probably also eating more meat than Probably Paranthropus. Paranthropus Opposite of trend in other hominids. First Stone Tools also ca. 2.5 Ma (Oldowan) (Oldowan) Oldowan Technology Oldowan First stone tool First technology technology 2.5 Ma-1.6 Ma Found in East Africa, Found South Africa, Georgia and Asia and Oldowan Technology Oldowan Hammerstone, Core, and Flake Hammerstone, Oldowan technology Oldowan consists of flakes, cores and hammercores stones. Flakes are the actual Flakes desired end product. desired Oldowan coincides with first evidence of animal butchery evidence Who made the Oldowan tools? Who Homo habilis definitely making stone Homo tools. tools. Processing food outside of the mouth. Probably eating more meat than Probably Paranthropus. Paranthropus It is not clear if Paranthropus also made It Paranthropus tools. tools. OH 8 H. habilis foot. Note carnivore tooth marks Around 2 Ma, there were multiple species of hominid co-existing Different adaptive strategies between 2 and 3 Ma. between Robust australopiths: focused at least focused seasonally on difficult to process foods such as roots and tubers (probably low quality). Used large teeth and jaws to process hard foods. process Early Homo: At least seasonally (and Early Homo At perhaps year-round) eating high quality, nutritionally dense foods such as meat. Used stone tools to process foods rather than processing foods in the mouth. than Tool use before the Oldowan? Tool • Early hominids had a Early similar brain size as chimpanzees and probably had the mental capacity to use tools. use • Early hominids may have Early used tools in a similar manner to chimpanzees without relying in them for survival. survival. Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania Olduvai Louis & Mary Leakey Dense accumulations of tools and damaged bones Interpretations of Oldowan sites sites • Oldowan sites were Oldowan originally interpreted as hominid campsites. hominid • Influences by recent Influences work on hunter gatherers. gatherers. • Too dangerous to be a Too campsite. campsite. • More likely a regularly More visited area. visited Big Picture Big All hominids discussed so far are found only in All Africa. Africa. All are small, have ape-like limb proportions, All and are at least partially tied to arboreal habitats. habitats. All have relatively small brains although Homo All habilis does show some increase. does Homo habilis were the first to create stone Homo tools. It is unclear whether other hominids also used tools. Next class…… Next Homo erectus Homo Questions Questions 1. Why are members of the genus Paranthropus Why call robust australopiths? call 2. How are Paranthropus and Early Homo How Paranthropus Homo coping with the environmental change? coping 3. How is the shape of the tooth rows in early How Homo different than any other hominid? Homo 4. Why is there a trend for smaller teeth in the Why genus Homo? What other trend do we see in Homo What this genus? this 5. What do we call the first stone tool technology What and who made these tools? and Happy Thanksgiving Happy ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course ANTHRO 102 taught by Professor F during the Spring '11 term at CUNY Queens.

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