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premodern humans for BB part 1

premodern humans for BB part 1 - Chapter 13 Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13 Chapter Premodern Humans: Homo heidelbergensis & Homo neanderthalensis Homo Homo The Pleistocene (Ice Age) The The Pleistocene, often The called the Ice Age, was marked by advances and retreats of massive continental glaciations. continental Fluctuations between Fluctuations glaciations and interglacials interglacials Hominids were impacted Hominids as the climate, flora, and animal life shifted. animal Glaciations Climatic intervals when Climatic continental ice sheets cover much of the northern continents. northern Glaciations are Glaciations associated with colder temperatures in northern latitudes and more arid conditions in southern latitudes, most notably in Africa. Africa. Interglacials Interglacials Climatic intervals when Climatic continental ice sheets are retreating, eventually becoming much reduced in size. Interglacials in northern Interglacials latitudes are associated with warmer temperatures, while in southern latitudes the climate becomes wetter. wetter. Changing Pleistocene Environments in Africa Environments Changing Pleistocene Environments in Eurasia Environments H. heidelbergensis 600-800 Ky H. heidelbergensis appears in Europe, Africa H. heidelbergensis H. Similarities to H. erectus Similarities H. Long, low skull Thick braincase Large brow ridges Derived features in H. Derived heidelbergensis heidelbergensis Bigger brain Rounder skull More vertical nose Less angled back of the Less skull skull Double arched brow Double ridges ridges H. heidelbergensis lifeways H. H. heidelbergensis Atapuerca Hills, Spain Gran Dolina, Atapuerca, Spain Oldest Western European fossils Oldest “Homo antecessor” Bermudez de Castro, Arsuaga, Carbonell, Rosas, Martinez & Mosquera, 1997 1997 M3 still in crypt P2 not in occlusion M2 not erupted First possible evidence of cannibalism. Found on 25% of the bones. Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain Simos de los Huesos Sample 2000 hominid bones, 32 individuals 17 of 32 were adolescents 11-19 years old 10 were young adults 20-27 years old 3 under 10, none older than 35 Even sex ratio Exhibit skeletal traits seen at high Frequencies in later Neanderthal populations GBY (Gesher Benot Ya’aqov), Israel, 780,000 years ago Burned 6 kinds of wood, including olive, wild grape, fruit seeds and nuts. H. heidelbergensis lifeways H. Known from Africa and Europe, perhaps Asia Better able to colonize higher latitudes than H. Better erectus, first successful colonization of W. Europe Europe Successful hunters with spear technology, Successful lived in mobile hunter-gatherer bands lived Perhaps simple shelters, controlled use of Perhaps fire fire Probably did not live much beyond 30 years of Probably age age Regional populations ancestral to H. sapiens Regional H. (Africa) and Neanderthals (Europe) (Africa) ...
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