premodern humans for BB part 2

premodern humans for BB part 2 - Neandertals Neandertals...

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Unformatted text preview: Neandertals Neandertals Homo neanderthalensis Feldhofer Cave, Neandertal, near Düsseldorf, Germany Düsseldorf, Also postcranial bones Discovered 1856 Big controversy: pathological, or “racially” distinct? In 1864, made type of a new human species, Homo neanderthalensis, by Irish anatomist William King The Neanderthal people The Now universally recognized as different Now from modern humans from But different subspecies (Homo sapiens But neanderthalensis), neanderthalensis or different species (Homo Homo neanderthalensis)? neanderthalensis Many aged and pathological Neanderthals Neanderthals The Old Man of La Chapelle-auxSaints Described by Boule in 1911-1913 He realized the skeleton was arthritic, but not the degree to which the arthritis altered the entire posture, and thought that “Neanderthal Man” was stooping and brutish Coming to terms with our cousin cousin Morphology Morphology Large brainAverage 1,520 cc Average (Sometimes larger than H. sapiens) H. Long, low skull Occipital bun Projecting midface Retromolar space Morphology Morphology Huge nose Large, arched Large, browridges browridges No chin Skeleton • Short trunks, flaring rib cage • Thick-walled limb bones with large joint surfaces • Robust hand bones • Short forearms and shins Bergmann’s & Allen’s Rules Broad chest, short forearms and shins minimizes surface area/volume: cold adaptation Very large nose may be cold adaptation too Neanderthal Lifeways & Culture Culture Shanidar Cave, Iraq Shanidar 1 Shanidar, Iraq Shanidar, Most 45 ka, a few 60 ka 45 Wound to eye + withered arm Tooth wear Tooth Mousterian industry industry Flake-based tool kit with some hafting of stone tools to wooden spears or handles, known from ca. 28 – 250 Ky Subsistence Subsistence Remains of animal bones demonstrate that Remains Neandertals were prolific hunters and almost completely carnivorous. completely Used close-proximity spears for hunting (spear Used thrower and bow and arrow weren’t invented until the Upper Paleolithic). Patterns of trauma in Neandertal remains Patterns match those of contemporary rodeo performers, indicating close proximity to prey. performers, Settlements Settlements People of the Mousterian culture lived in People open sites, caves, and rock shelters. open Windbreaks of poles and skin were Windbreaks placed at the cave opening for protection against severe weather. Fire was used for cooking, warmth, light, Fire and keeping predators at bay. and Burials Burials Neanderthals buried their dead. Neanderthals Their burials included grave goods like Their animal bones and stone tools. They placed the bodies of their dead in a They flexed position. And what became of them? And Starting about 43 Ky, Homo sapiens Starting began to spread into Europe began Did Neandertals disappear because of Did competition (or warfare?) competition Or did they interbreed with the H. Or sapiens? sapiens Questions Questions 1. What did Africa and Europe look like during What glaciations? glaciations? 2. Which species is transitional between H. Which erectus and H. sapiens? erectus H. 3. What is the site of Sima de los Huesos? 4. Where do we find Neantertals? 5. What are some cranial characteristics seen in What Neanderthals? Neanderthals? 6. What did the bodies of Neandetals look like? What What type of environment were they adapted for? for? 7. What is the stone tool industry associated What with Neandertals? with Have a nice day! Have ...
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