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Unformatted text preview: Neandertals
Homo neanderthalensis Feldhofer Cave, Neandertal, near
Also postcranial bones
Discovered 1856 Big controversy:
distinct? In 1864, made type of a new human species, Homo neanderthalensis,
by Irish anatomist William King The Neanderthal people
The Now universally recognized as different
from modern humans
from But different subspecies (Homo sapiens
neanderthalensis or different species (Homo
neanderthalensis Many aged and pathological
The Old Man of La Chapelle-auxSaints
Described by Boule
He realized the
skeleton was arthritic,
but not the degree to
which the arthritis
altered the entire
posture, and thought
Man” was stooping
and brutish Coming to terms with our
Morphology Large brainAverage 1,520 cc
than H. sapiens)
H. Long, low skull Occipital bun Projecting midface Retromolar space Morphology
Morphology Huge nose Large, arched
browridges No chin Skeleton
• Short trunks, flaring rib
• Thick-walled limb bones
with large joint surfaces
• Robust hand bones
• Short forearms and shins
Bergmann’s & Allen’s Rules
Broad chest, short forearms
and shins minimizes
surface area/volume: cold
Very large nose may be cold
adaptation too Neanderthal Lifeways &
Culture Shanidar Cave, Iraq Shanidar 1 Shanidar, Iraq
Most 45 ka, a few 60 ka
arm Tooth wear
industry Flake-based tool kit
with some hafting of
stone tools to wooden
spears or handles,
known from ca. 28 –
250 Ky Subsistence
Subsistence Remains of animal bones demonstrate that
Neandertals were prolific hunters and almost
completely Used close-proximity spears for hunting (spear
thrower and bow and arrow weren’t invented
until the Upper Paleolithic). Patterns of trauma in Neandertal remains
match those of contemporary rodeo
performers, indicating close proximity to prey.
Settlements People of the Mousterian culture lived in
open sites, caves, and rock shelters.
open Windbreaks of poles and skin were
placed at the cave opening for protection
against severe weather. Fire was used for cooking, warmth, light,
and keeping predators at bay.
Burials Neanderthals buried their dead.
Neanderthals Their burials included grave goods like
animal bones and stone tools. They placed the bodies of their dead in a
flexed position. And what became of them?
And Starting about 43 Ky, Homo sapiens
began to spread into Europe
began Did Neandertals disappear because of
competition (or warfare?)
competition Or did they interbreed with the H.
1. What did Africa and Europe look like during
2. Which species is transitional between H.
erectus and H. sapiens?
3. What is the site of Sima de los Huesos?
4. Where do we find Neantertals?
5. What are some cranial characteristics seen in
6. What did the bodies of Neandetals look like?
What type of environment were they adapted
7. What is the stone tool industry associated
with Have a nice day!
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- Spring '11