AP Exam MC 1999

AP Exam MC 1999 - CHEMISTRY SECTION I Time— 1 hour and 30...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEMISTRY SECTION I Time— 1 hour and 30 minutes NO CALCULATORS MAY BE USED WITH SECTION I. a Note: For all questions, assume that the temperature is 298 K, the pressure is 1.00 atmosphere, and solutions are aqueous unless otherwise specified. Throughout the test the following symbols have the definitions specified unless otherwise noted. T = temperature M = molar ‘. P = pressure m = molal V = volume L, mL = liter(s), milliliter(s) \ ‘ S = entropy g = gram(s) H = enthalpy nm = nanometer(s) G = free energy atm = atmosphe_re(s) R = molar gas constant J, k] = joule(s), kilojoule(s) n = number of moles V = volt(s) mol = mole(s) Part A Directions: Each set of lettered choices below refers to the numbered statements immediately following it. Select the one lettered choice that best fits each statement and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. A choice may be used once, more than once, or not at all in each set. ' Questions 1-4 refer to the following types of energy. (A) Activation energy (B) Free energy (C) Ionization energy (D) Kinetic energy (E) Lattice energy 1. The energy required to convert a ground-state atom in the gas phase to a gaseous positive ion 2. The energy change that occurs in the conversion of an ionic solid to widely separated gaseous ions 3. The energy in a chemical or physical change that is available to do useful work 4. The energy required to form the tranfiion state in a chemical reaction ‘ ~ —.\ EW'MMWL'fifi’g‘ Jim.“ A ' an 0N To THE NEXT PAGE ‘ Questions 5-8 refer to atoms for which the occupied atomic orbitals are shown below. (A) Is 25 T (B) 1's Ti 2s Tt (C) Is Tl 2s Tt 2p T T X (D) 1s Ti 25_T_i__2p Ti Ti Tl (E) [Ar] 4s_TL3d TL T T T T "’ 5. Represents an atom that is chemically unreactive 6. Represents an atom in an excited state 7. Represents an atom that has four valence electrons 8. Represents an atom of a transition metal Questions 9-12 refer to aqueous solutions containing 1:1 mole ratios of the following pairs of substances. Assume all concentrations are l M. (A) NH3 and NH4Cl (B) H3PO4 and NaHZPO4 (C) HCl and NaCl (D) NaOH and NH3 (E) NH3 and HC2H302 (acetic acid) 9. The solution with the lowest pH 10. The most nearly neutral solution 11.Abufferata pH > 8 12. A buffer at a pH < 6 no 0N m THE NEXT PAGE « Questions 13-16 refer to the following descriptions of Questions 17—18 refer to the following elements. bonding in different types of solids. (A) Lithium (A) Lattice of positive and negative ions held (B) Nickel together by electrostatic forces (C) Bromine (B) Closely packed latticewith delocalized (D) Uranium electrons throughout (E) Fluorine (C) Strong single covalent bonds with weak intermolecular forces 17. Is a gas in its standard state at 298 K (D) Strong multiple covalent bonds (including n—bonds) with weak intermolecular forces 18. Reacts with water to form a strong base (E) Macromolecules held together with strong polar bonds r 13. Cesium chloride, CsCl(s) 14. Gold, Au(s) 15. Carbon dioxide, C02(s) 16. Methane, CH4 (5) GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE PartB Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggestedanswers or comple- tions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. . 19. Which of the follOwing best describes the role of the spark from the spark plug in an automobile engine? (A) The spark decreases the energy of activation for the slow step. (B) The spark increases the concentration of the volatile reactant. (C) The spark supplies some of the energy of activation for the combustion reaction. (D) The spark provides a more favorable activated complex for the combustion reaction. \‘ . (E) The spark provides the heat of vaporization for the volatile hydrocarbon. (I 20. What mass of Au is produced when 0.0500 mol of Au283 is reduced completely with excess H2 ? (A) 9.85 g (B) 19.7 g (C) 24.5 g (D) 39.4 g (E) 48.9 g 21. When a solution of sodium chloride is vaporized in a flame, the color of the flame is (A) blue (B) yellow (C) green (D) violet (E) white 22. Of the following reactions, which involves the largest decrease in entropy? (A) CaCO3(s) —-> CaO(s) + C02(g) (B) 2 C0(g) + 02(g) -> 2 C02(g) (C) Pb(NO3)2(s) + 2 K1(s) ——> Pb12(s) + 2 KNO3(s) (D) C3Hs(g) + 5 02(8) -> 3 C02(g) + 4 H20(g) (E) 4 La(s) + 3 02(g) ——> 2 La203(s) seesaw 31.33273“ (:0 ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 24. The safest and most" effective emergency proce- dure to treat an acid splash on skin is to do which of the following immediately? (A) Dry the affected area with paper towels (B) Sprinkle the affected area with powdered ' NaZSO4(s) (C) Flush the affected area with water and then with a dilute NaOH solution (D) Flush the affected area with water and then with a dilute NaHCO3 solution (E) Flush the affected area with water and then with a dilute vinegar solution 23. A hot-air balloon, shown above, rises. Which of the following is the best explanation for this observation? (A) The pressure on the walls of the balloon increases with increasing temperature. (B) The difference in temperature between the air inside and outside the balloon produces con— vection currents. (C) The cooler air outside the balloon pushes in on the walls of the balloon. (D) The rate of diffusion of cooler air is less than that of warmer air. (E) The air density inside the balloon is less than that of the surrounding air. mgr-4.2mmer A " an ON TO THE NEXT PAGE ‘ Temperature Time 25. The cooling curve for a pure substance as it changes from a liquid to a x \ solid is shown above. The solid and the liquid coexist at (A) point Q only (B) point R only (C) all points on the curve between Q and S (D) all points on the curve between R and T (E) no point on the curve ...C,0H1204S(s) + ...02(g) —-> ...C02(g) + ...s02(g) + ...H20(g) 26. When the equation above is balanced and all coefficients are reduced to their lowest whole-number terms, the coefficient for 02(g) is (A) 6 ‘(B) 7 (C) 12 (D) 14 (E) 28 27. Appropriate uses of a visible-light spectrophotometer include which of the following? 1. Determining the concentration of a solution of Cu(NO3)2 II. Measuring the conductivity of a solution of KMnO4 III. Determining which ions are present in a solution that may contain Na”, Mg2+, Al3+ ' (A) Ionly (B) II only (C) III only (D) I and II only (E) I and III only mar-gm 31:91:?” as ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 28. The melting point of MgO is higher than that of NaF. Explanations for this observation include which of the following? 1. Mg“ is more positively charged than Na+. II. 02' is more negatively charged than F'. 111. The 02' ion is smaller than the F‘ ion. (A) 11 only (B) I and 11 only (C) I and 111 only (D) II and III only (E) 1,11, and III 0 CH3—C—CH2—CH3 29. The organic compound represented above is an example of (A) an organic acid (B) an alcohol (C) an ether (D) an aldehyde (E) aketone H25e(g) + 4 02F2(g) —> SeF6(g) + 2 HF(g) + 4 02(g) 30. Which of the following is true regarding the reaction represented above? (A) The oxidation number of 0 does not change. (B) The oxidation number of H changes from -1 to +1. (C) The oxidation number of F changes from H to — 1. (D) The oxidation number of Se changes from -—2 to +6. (E) It is a disproportionation reaction for F. 31. If the temperature of an aqueous solution of NaCl is increased from 20°C to 90°C, which of the following statements is true? (A) The density of the solution remains unchanged. (B) The molarity of the solution remains unchanged. (C) The molality of the solution remains unchanged. (D) The mole fraction of solute decreases. (E) The mole fraction of solute increases. ’) ESWQmfiwmu-gu-flw GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE ' A - 32. 33. Types of hybridization exhibited by the C atoms in propene, CH3CHCH2, include which of the following? , I. Sp II. 5p2 III. sp3 (A) Ionly (B) III only (C) I and 11 only (D) II and 111 only (E) I, II, and III A 1.0 L sample of an aqueous solution contains 0.10 mol of NaCl and 0.10 mol of CaClz. What is the minimum number of moles of AgNO3 that must be added to the solution in order to precipi— tate all of the Cl‘ as AgCl(s) ? (Assume that AgCl is insoluble.) (A) 0.10 mol (B) 0.20 mol (C) 0.30 mol (D) 0.40 mol (E) 0.60 mol Unauthoriud copyin or rousing any part of this pm a lllognl. ~. mestions 34-35 refer to an electrolytic cell that ‘ \J 34. (I 35. involves the following half-reaction. ‘ A1F63‘+ 3 e- A A1 + 6 F- Which of the following occurs in the reaction? (A) AlF63‘ is reduced at the cathode. (B) Al is oxidized at the anode. (C) Aluminum is converted from the -3 oxi- dation state to the 0 oxidation state. (D) F" acts as a reducing agent. \. (E) F" is reduced at the cathode. A steady current of 10 amperes is passed through an aluminum-production cell for 15 minutes. Which of the following is the correct expression for calculating the number of grams of aluminum produced? ( 1 faraday = 96,500 coulombs) (10) (15) (96, 500) “) (mum) g (10) (15) (27) (B) (60) (96, 500) g (10) (15) (60) (27) ‘0 (%fimxo (96, 500) (27) (wxwuwxmg (27) (3) (E) (96, 500) (10) (15) (60) g (D) GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 1) ectlon Initial Rate of Formation of NO2 ‘ 36. The initial-rate data in the table above were obtained for the reaction represented below. What is the experimental rate law for the reaction? ‘2 N0(g) + 02(3) —-> N02(g) ‘. (A) Rate = k[NO][02] (B) Rate = k[NO][02]2 (C) Rate = k[NO]2[02] (D) Rate = k[NO]2[02]2 [N0] (E) Rate = k [02] Ionization Eneries for element X (kJ mol“) First 1,815 2,740 11,600 14,800 37. The ionization energies for element X are listed in the table above. On the basis of the data, element X is most likely to be (A) Na (B) Mg (C) Al (D) Si (E) P 38. A molecule or an ion is classified as a Lewis acid if it (A) accepts a proton from water (B) accepts a pair of electrons to form a bond (C) donates a pair of electrons to form a bond (D) donates a proton to water (E) has resonance Lewis electron-dot structures WWWrw film?!“ an on TO THE NEXT PAGE ~c (I 2 SO3(g) 2 2 _soz(g) + 02(g) 41. After the equilibrium represented above is estab- lished, some pure 02( g) is injected into the reaction vessel at constant temperature. After equilibrium is reestablished, which of the fol- lowing has a lower value compared to its value at the original equilibrium? Pressure (mm Hg) (A) K ,4 for the reaction (B) The total pressure in the reaction vessel (C) The amount of SO3( g) in the reaction‘yessel Temperature (°C) (D) The amount of 02(g) in the reaction vessel . The phase diagram for a pure substance is shown (B) The amount 0f 302(g) in the reaCtion above. Which point on the diagram corresponds vessel ‘ to the equilibrium between the solid and liquid phases at the normal melting point? (A) A (B) B (C) C (D) D (E) E . Of the following molecules, which has the largest dipole moment? (A) co (B) co2 (C) 02 (D) HF (E) F2 film.“ so on TO THE NEXT PAGE ...Li3N(s) + ...H20(l) -—> ...Li+(aq) + ...OH'(aq) +* . ..NH3(g) 42. When the equation above is balanced and all coefficients reduced to lowest whole— number terms, the coefficient for OH‘(aq) is (A) 1 (B) 2 (C) 3 (D) 4 (E) 6 43. A sample of 61.8 g of H3BO3, a weak acid, is dissolved in 1,000 g of water to make a 1.0—molal'solution. Which of the following would be the best procedure \ to determine the molarifl of the solution? (Assume no additional information is ' available.) (A) Titration of the solution with standard acid (B) Measurement of the pH with a pH meter (C) Determination of the boiling point of the solution (D) Measurement of the total volume of the solution (E) Measurement of the specific heat of the solution 44. A rigid metal tank contains oxygen gas. Which of the following applies to the gas in the tank when additional oxygen is added at constant temperature? (A) The volume of the gas increases. (B) The pressure of the gas decreases. (C) The average speed of the gas molecules remains the same}. (D) The total number of gas molecules remains the same. (E) The average distance between the gas molecules increases. 45. What is the H+(aq) concentration in 0.05 M HCN(aq) ? (The K” for HCN is 5.0 x 10'”) (A) 2.5 x 10‘” M (B) 2.5 x 10‘10 M (C) 5.0 x 10‘10 M (D) 5.0 x 10‘6 M (E) 5.0 x 10‘4 M 46. Which of the following occurs when excess concentrated NH3(aq) is mixed thoroughly with 0.1 M Cu(NO3)2(aq) ? (A) A dark red precipitate forms and settles out. (B) Separate layers of immiscible liquids form/with a blue layer on top. (C) The color of the solution turns from light bTue to dark blue. (D) Bubbles of ammonia gas form. x “ (E) The pH of the solution decreases. , (:0 ON TO THE NEXT PAGE A v. 47. When hafnium metal is heated in an atmosphere of chlorine gas, the product of the reaction is found to contain 62.2 percent Hf by mass and 37.4 percent C1 by mass. What is the empirical formula for this compound? (A) HfCl (B) ch12 (C) ch13 (D) ch14 (E) Hf2C13 ‘ If 87.5 percent of a sample of pure 131I decays in 24 days, what is the half-life of 1311 '2 (A) 6days (B) 8days (C) 12 days (D) 14 days (E) 21 days 48. 49. Which of the following techniques is most appro- priate for the recovery of solid KNO3 from an aqueous solution of KNO3 ? (A) Paper chromatography (B) Filtration (C) Titration (D) Electrolysis (E) Evaporation to dryness 50. In the periodic table, as the atomic number increases from 11 to 17, what happens to the atomic radius? (A) It remains constant. (B) It increases only. (C) It increases, then decreases. (D) It decreases only. (E) It decreases, then increases. Unauthorized copyin or rauaing any part of thia page a Illegal. < 51. 52. 53. \°\ _Which of the following is a correct interpretation of the results of Rutherford’s experiments in f which'gold atoms were bombarded with alpha particles? (A) Atoms have equal numbers of positive and negative charges. (B) Electrons in atoms are arranged in shells. ~ (C) Neutrons are at the center of an atom. (D) yeutrons and protons in atoms have nearly equal mass. (E) The positive charge of an atom is concen- trated in a small region. \. Under which of the following sets of conditions could the most 02(g) be dissolved in H200) ? Pressure of 02(g) Temperature Above H200) of H200) atm 1°C) (A) 5.0 80 (B) 5.0 20 (C) 1.0 80 (D) 1.0 20 (E) 0.5 20 Ms) + X(g) —> Y(g) + 2(3) Gases W and X react in a closed, rigid vessel to form gases Y and Z according to the equation above. The initial pressure of W(g) is 1.20 atm and that of X(g) is 1.60 atm. No Y(g) or Z(g) is initially present. The experiment is carried out at constant temperature. What is the partial pres- sure of Z(g) when the partial pressure of W(g) has decreased to 1.0 atm? (A) 0.20 atm (B) 0.40 atm (C) 10 atm (D) 1.2 atm (E) 1.4 atm GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 2 NO(g) + 02(g) :2 2 N02(g) AH < 0 ‘ 54. Which of the following changes alone would cause a decrease in the value of Keq for the reaction represented above? (A) Decreasing the temperature (B) Increasing the temperature (C) Decreasing the volume of the reaction vessel (D) Increasing the volume of the reaction vessel (E) Adding a catalyst 55. According to the balanced equation above, how many moles of H1 would be neces- sary to produce 25 mol of 12, starting with 4.0 mol of KMnO4 and 3.0 mol of H2804 ? (A) 20. (B) 10. (C) 8.0 (D) 5.0 (E) 2.5 56. A yellow precipitate forms when 0.5 M NaI(aq) is added to a 0.5 M solution of which of the following ions? (A) Pb2+(aq) (B) Zn2+<aq) (c) Cr042‘(aq) ‘ (D) soflaq) (E) OH’(aq) M(s) + 3 Ag+(aq) —> 3 Ag(s) + M3+(aq) E° = + 2.46 V Ag+(aq) + e- —1 Ag(s) 15° = + 0.30 v 57. According to the information above, what is the standard reduction potential for the half-reaction M3+(aq) + 3 e" —9 M(s) ? (A) -1.66 V (B) -0.06 V (C) 0.06 V (D) 1.66 V (E) 3.26 V Emma’s: .1352?” so on TO THE NEXT PAGE v. 58. 59. On a mountaintop, it is observed that water boils at 90°C, not at 100°C as at sea level. This phe- nomenon occurs because on th’! mountaintop the (A) equilibrium water vapor pressure is higher due to the higher atmospheric pressure (B) equilibrium water vapor pressure is lower due to the higher atmospheric pressure (C) equilibrium water vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure atg lower temperature (D) water molecules have a lfigher average kinetic energy due to the lower atmospheric pressure 7 r (E) water contains a greater concentration of dissolved gases A 40.0 riiL sample of 0.25 M KOH is added to 60.0 mL of 0.15 M Ba(OH)2. What is the molar concentration of OH'(aq) in the resulting solu— tion? (Assume that the volumes are additive.) (A) 0.10 M (B) 0.19 M (C) 0.28 M (D) 0.40 M (E) 0.55 M Unauthoride copyin? or rousing any pan of this page a mogul. ~ NH4NO3(s) —> N20(g) + 2 H20(g) 60. A 0.03 mol sample bf NH4NQ3(s) is placed in 61. a 1 L evacuated flask, which is then sealed and heated. The NH4NO3(s) decomposes completely according to the balanced equation above. The p total pressure in the flask measured at 400 K is closest to which of the following? (The value of the gas constant, R, is 0.082 L atm mol-l K") (A) 3 atm (B) latm (C) 0.5 atm ‘- (D) 0.1 atm (E) 0.03 atm C2H4(g) + 3 02(3) —9 2 C02(g) + 2 H20(g) For the reaction of ethylene represented above, AH is —1,323 k]. What is the value of AH if the combustion produced liquid water HZOU), rather than water vapor H20(g) ? (AH for the phase change HZO(g) —> H200) is —44 k] moi—1.) (A) —1,235 k] (B) -l,279 k] (C) —-1,323 k] (D) —l,367 k] (E) —1,411 1d GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE trim“.- HC2H302(aq) + CN—(aq) :2 HCN(aq) + c2H302"(aq) 62. The reaction represented above has an equilibrium constant equal I to 3.7 x 104. Which of the following can be concluded from this information? (A) CN’ (aq) is a stronger base than C2H302' (aq). (B) HCN (aq) is a stronger acid than HC2H302 (aq). (C) The conjugate base of CN" (aq) is C2H3O2_ (aq). (D) The equilibrium constant will increase with an increase in temperature. (E) The pH ’of a solution containing equimolar amounts of CN_(aq) and HC2H302(aq) is 7.0. X Concentration of X or Y (mo N o 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (hours) 63. The graph above shows the results of a study of the reaction of X with a large excess of Y to yield Z. The concentrations of X and Y were measured over a period of time. According to the results, which of the following can be concluded about the rate law for the reaction under the conditions studied? (A) It is zero order in [X]. (B) It is first order in [X]. (C) It is second order in [X]. (D) It is first order in [Y]. (E) The overall order of the reaction is 2. c thorlnd copyin or rouslng In 0! this plg. s mogul. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE V 64. Equal numbers of moles of He(g), Ar(g), and Ne(g) are placed in a glass vessel at room temperature. If the vessel has a pinhole—sized leak, which'of the following will be true regarding the relative values of the partial pressures of the gasesremaining in the vessel after some of the gas mixture has effused? (A) PHc<PNe<PAr \w (B) PHe < PAr < PNc (C) P3,: < PAr < PHe (D) PAr < PHe < PM (E) PHe = PM = PNe ‘- \ V 65. Which of the following compounds is NOT appreciably soluble in water but is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid? (A) Mg(0H)2(s> (B) (NH4>2c03<s) (C) CuSO4(s) (D) (NH4)ZSO4(S) (E) Sr(NO3)2(s) 66. When solid ammonium chloride, NH4Cl(s), is added to water at 25°C, it dissolves and the temperature of the solution decreases. Which of the following is true for the values of A H and A S for the dissolving process? 911 A_5 (A) Positive Positive (B) Positive Negative (C) Positive Equal to zero (D) Negative Positive (E) Negative Negative 67. What is the molar solubility in water of AgZCrO4 ? (The K5,, for AgZCrO4 is 8 x 10'12.) (A) 8 x 10‘12 M (B) 2 x10"12M (C) t/4x10‘12 M (D) 13/4x10_12 M (E) 2 x10"2 M anpfifimfm .1352?!” so ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 68. 69. 70. In which of the following processes are covalent bonds broken? (A) I2(3) -> 12(g) (B) C020) ‘9 C02(8) (C) NaCl(s) -—> NaCl(l) (D) C(diamond) —> C(g) (E) Fe(s) —> Fe(l) What is the final concentration of barium ions, [Ba2+], in solution when 100. mL of 0.10 M BaC12(aq) is mixed with 100. mL of 0.050 M HZSO4(aq) ? (A) 0.00 M (B) 0.012 M (C) 0.025 M (D) 0.075 M (E) 0.10 M When 100 mL of 1.0 M Na3PO4 is mixed with 100 mL of 1.0 M AgNO3, a yellow precipitate forms and [Ag] becomes negligibly small. Which of the following is a correct listing of the ions remaining in solution in order of increasing concentration? (A) [13043—1 < [NO3"] < [Na+] (B) [13043—1 < [Na+] < [NO3'] (C) [NO3'] < [P0431 < [Na+} (D) [Na+] < [NO3'] < [PO43'] (E) [Na+] < [PO43'] < [NO3'] ’) Unauthorlud cnpyln or muulng any part of this page I Illegal. 71. 72. W In a qualitative analysis for the presence of Pb“, Fe”, and Cu“ ions in aqueous solution, which of the following will allow the separation of Pb2+ from the other ions at room temperature? (A) Adding dilute Na28(aq) solution (B) Adding dilute HCl(aq) solution (C) Adding dilute NaOH(aq) solution (D) Adding dilute NH3(aq) solution (B) Adding dilute HNO3(aq) solution \ - After completing an experiment to determine gravimetrically the percentage of water in a hydrate, a student reported a value of 38. percent. The correct value for the percentage of water in the hydrate is 51 percent. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this difference? (A) Strong initial heating caused some of the hydrate sample to spatter out of the crucible. (B) The dehydrated sample absorbed moisture after heating. (C) The amount of the hydrate sample used was too small. (D) The crucible was not heated to constant mass before use. (E) Excess heating caused the dehydrated sample to decompose. GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE 73. v The volume of distilled water that should be added to 10.0 mL of 6.00 M HCl(aq) in order to prepare a 0.500 MwHCl(aq) solution is 75. Which of the following pairs of liquids forms the solution that is most ideal (most closely follows Raoult’s law) ? ‘ ' aPproximateIY‘ (A) CSHISU) and H200) E3; 238$ (B) CH3CH2CH20H(I) and H20(l) (C) 100. mL ‘ (C) CH3CH2CH20HU) and cgnma) $11: (D) C6H14a) and CnggU) 74. V , (E) HZSO4(I) and H200) Which of the following gases deviates most from ideal behavior? (A) S02 (B) Ne (c) CH: (D) N2 (E) H2 END OF SECTION I IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION. DO NOT GO ON TO SECTION II UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. Unauthorized copyin? or mullng Any part at this page a “log-l. ‘ ...
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AP Exam MC 1999 - CHEMISTRY SECTION I Time— 1 hour and 30...

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