Bio Mass Energy - BIOMASS BASICS The term biomass applies...

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BIOMASS BASICS The term biomass applies to a wide range of materials, but the main resources are: (i) forest crops ; (ii) wood wastes; (iii) sugar crops (e.g., bagasse); (iv) starch crops; (v) herbaceous lignocelluloses crops; (vi) oil crops; (vii) agricultural wastes (e.g., rice hull); (viii) municipal solid wastes (ix) industrial wastes. These materials are converted into fuels which are used to run the engines that generate electricity. The conversion involves three main processes: thermochemical (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction), chemical (esterification) and biochemical (acid hydrolysis, enzyme hydrolysis, fermentation) processes.
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Today, biomass provides us a little over three percent of the energy we use. It has been replaced by coal, natural gas, petroleum, and other energy sources. Today, most of the biomass energy we use comes from wood. It accounts for two-thirds of biomass consumption. Other biomass sources include biofuels (alcohol fuels), crops, garbage, and landfill gas. Biomass and the Environment Biomass can pollute the air when it is burned, though not as much as fossil fuels. Burning biomass fuels does not produce pollutants like sulfur, which can cause acid rain. Growing plants for biomass fuel may reduce greenhouse gases, since plants use carbon dioxide and produce oxygen as they grow. Carbon dioxide is considered an important greenhouse gas.
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Biomass gets its energy from the sun. Plants absorb sunlight in a process called photosynthesis. With sunlight, air, water, and nutrients from the soil, plants make sugars called carbohydrates. Foods that are rich in carbohydrates are good sources of energy for the human body. Biomass is called a renewable energy source because we can grow more in a short period of time.
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THERMAL CONVERSION Thermal conversion processes can be applied to rice hull, considered one of the more abundant biomass resource. There are three major processes involved: (i) direct combustion; (ii) gasification; (iii) pyrolysis. In the direct combustion process, rice hull is burned in a furnace to produce steam in a boiler. The steam is used to run a steam engine or a steam turbine, which, in turn, drives an electric generator. In gasification and pyrolysis, rice hull is converted into combustible gas to fuel internal combustion engines (diesel or gasoline types). The thermal conversion occurs inside a reactor containing the rice hull. In gasification, air is utilized as an oxidant medium of conversion in order to facilitate the production of combustible gas. Pyrolysis is done
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This note was uploaded on 12/05/2011 for the course ELECTRICAL 93 taught by Professor Sirraosb during the Winter '11 term at University of Engineering & Technology.

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Bio Mass Energy - BIOMASS BASICS The term biomass applies...

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