CHEM31FinalFormulaSheet2011

CHEM31FinalFormulaSheet2011 - CONSTANTS AND CONVERSIONS...

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CONSTANTS AND CONVERSIONS Avogadro’s number: N A = 6.02214 x 10 23 mol -1 Gas Constant: R = 0.08206 L atm K -1 mol -1 = 8.314 J K -1 mol -1 Boltzmann’s constant: k B = 1.38066 x 10 -23 J K -1 Planck’s constant: h = 6.62608 x 10 -34 J s Speed of light: c = 2.9979 x 10 8 m s -1 Rydberg constant: R H = 2.178 x 10 -18 J At T = 298K, RT = 2.478 kJ/mol K w = 1.0 x 10 -14 @ 25 o C 0 o C = 273.15 K 1 L atm = 101.325 J 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 1.01325 x 10 5 Pa 1 amu = 1 g mol -1 = 1.6605 x 10 -27 kg
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FORMULAS PV = nRT ATOMS AND MOLECULES " = #$ !" = c " E = nh # E = h = hc / KE = 1 2 m 2 = h $ h 0 = h m = h p H = E " x " p # h 4 $ V ( r ) = " Ze 2 r E n = " R H Z 2 n 2 # $ % & ' ( R H = me 4 8 o 2 h 2 " E = E f # E i = # R H Z 2 1 n f 2 # 1 n I 2 $ % & & ' ( ) ) Lattice Energy = k Q 1 Q 2 r " # $ % & ' " H = D # (bonds broken) $ D # (bonds formed) Formal Charge: FC = (# valence electrons in free atom) – (# nonbonding electrons) – 1/2(# bonding electrons) Bond Order: B.O. = 1/2(# electrons in bonding MOs - # electrons in antibonding MOs) μ = Qr Order of MO energy levels for 2 nd row homonuclear diatomics (including core electrons): Li 2 through N 2 : ! 1 s < 1 s * < 2 s < 2 s * < 2 p < 2 p < 2 p * < 2 p * O 2 through F 2 : 1 s < 1 s * < 2 s < 2 s * < 2 p < 2 p < 2 p * < 2 p *
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KINETICS Rate = k [ A ] n [ B ] m [ A ] = [ A ] o e " kt ln[ A ] = " kt + ln[ A ] o t 1/ 2 = 0.693 k 1 [ A ] = kt + 1 [ A ] o k = Ae " E a / RT ln k = ln A " E a R 1 T # $ % & ' ( ln k 2 k 1 " # $ % & ' = E a R 1 T 1 ( 1 T 2 " # $ % & ' E a forward " E a reverse = # H EQUILIBRIUM AND ACID/BASE Quadratic equation: if ax 2 + bx + c = 0 then x = ! b ± 2 ! 4 ac 2 a Q = [ C ] c [ D ] d [ A ] a [ B ] b K = [ C ] eq c [ D ] eq d [ A ] eq a [ B ] eq b K P = P C c P D d P A
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CHEM31FinalFormulaSheet2011 - CONSTANTS AND CONVERSIONS...

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