12-OcFA11-BiolIntro_WEB - Biological Oceanography:...

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Biological Oceanography: Introduction The Plan: Chap 12 (Life in the Ocean) Classification of Life/Overview Ecology (Trophic structure) Primary production Chap 13 (Pelagic communities) Adaptations to marine life Biological Resources Chap 14 (Benthic Communities) Coral reefs Chap 15 (Uses and abuses) Marine Pollution issues Biological Oceanography - the ecology of marine organisms (interaction with physics, chemistry, and geology of the ocean environment) Marine Biology - the biology of marine organisms: (physiology, behavior, feeding biology, biochemistry, reproduction) Classification Based on lifestyle: Plankton (pelagic realm) (phytoplankton(algae), zooplankton) Floaters and drifters Nekton (pelagic realm) Free swimmers Benthos (benthic realm) Bottom dwellers Attached to bottom or free moving Meroplankton: Organisms that spend only part of their life cycle in water column(mixed lifestyle) e.g. Squid have benthic, planktonic, and nektonic stages e.g. Phylum: Cnidaria (Coelenterates), Carnivores Two basic body types (most have both during life): Medusae - free floating stage (jellyfish-like) Classification of Life
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Classification Based on habitat: Pelagic Zone: Habitats within the water column Photic zone (upper 100 m that receives sunlight) Aphotic zone (deeper than light can penetrate) Abyssal zone (deep, deep ocean) Benthic Zone: Habitats on the seafloor Epifaunal (living on the sea floor) Infaunal (within.or.buried in sediment on sea floor) 17% of all known species live in sea WHY? 99% of marine species are benthic WHY? Classification Based on body plan (now genetic) Linnaean Taxonomy - a method of classifying living things originally devised by Carl Linnaeus (1758)-started use of binomial nomenclature; (combo. genus + species identifier) -prior to Linnaean Taxonomy, animals classified according to mode of movement -formerly physiological, now genetic Where do new species come from? -Proposed by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace,1858 -Propagation of heritable traits that increase an individual’s chance of survival ( actually reproduction) -It is how species (not organisms) adapt to their environment Natural selection (adaptation that fill niches) -Variations from: -mutation (random changes in gene pool) -gene flow (an individual of one moves to another group)
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course OCE 1001 taught by Professor Smith during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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12-OcFA11-BiolIntro_WEB - Biological Oceanography:...

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