15-OcFA11-BioRes_Web - Biological Resources Biological...

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Biological Resources Biological Resources = all the animals and plants harvested from sea, primarily for food. significant proportion of the human population’s protein intake. Fishery = fish caught from the ocean by commercial fishers Commercial fishing is a multi-billion dollar industry the most dangerous job in the U.S. (highest death rate) highly technological equipment employed in ever-increasing effort to catch ever-dwindling resource. Tragedy of the commons”: Free access and unrestricted demand for a finite resource ultimately reduces the resource through over-exploitation, temporarily or permanently -ecologist Garrett Hardin in 1968 -concept for understanding how we have come to be at the brink of -numerous environmental catastrophes -caused by apparently appropriate and innocent behaviors of many individuals acting alone -Ocean is the ultimate ‘common’ property Key Terms: Target Catch - The species of fish or catch that is primarily sought in a fishery (ex. tuna, shrimp, flounders) Bycatch – Caught along with target catch (discarded catch plus incidental catch) Incidental Catch - catch of non-targeted species that is kept Discarded Catch - portion of the catch returned to the sea (economic, legal, or personal considerations). Bycatch mitigation - efforts to make bycatch less severe
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Equipment Driftnets are notorious for their bykill of turtles, seals, dolphin and everything else Trawling : Conical nets Can trawl at surface, mid-depth, bottom (highly disruptive of benthic environment) Shrimp trawlers are wasteful produce 2 % of the world’s seafood responsible for 33% of the bycatch and bykill. 14 pounds of fish and other marine life destroyed for 1 pound of shrimp harvested. Shrimp trawlers kill more turtles than all other human means combined in US waters Long-lining - Up to 10’s of km with thousands of baited hooks (targets swordfish, tuna) - Also catches sharks, marine birds and mammals - In Gulf of Mexico more that half of catch is thrown back, 65% of these die.(this includes 50% of swards that are returned because too small, 77% die) Purse Seine : net is released behind a boat, usually in a circle several hundred meters across. Two net ends are brought together onto the boat., Catches everything
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15-OcFA11-BioRes_Web - Biological Resources Biological...

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