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Exam 2 autobiographical memory

Exam 2 autobiographical memory - Autobiographical Memory...

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Unformatted text preview: Autobiographical Memory Autobiographical Memory What kinds of events are most likely to be remembered? When do these events occur? Is there something special about memory for extraordinary events? Autobiographical Memory (AM) Recollected events that belong to a person’s past Recollected events that belong to a person’s past -Occurs across more regions than non-autobiographical memories Contains both episodic and semantic information Multidimensional Spatial, emotional, and sensory components Memory over the life span When do these events occur? Reminiscence bump Reminiscence bump- enhanced autobiographical memory, a lot of things go on in that point of life that is an important memory ex: going to college, graduating, forming a relationship 1 Autobiographical Memory Memory for “exceptional” events What kinds of events are most likely to be remembered? Personal Highly milestones/significant events Transition points emotional events Role of the amygdala Flashbulb memories(?) Flashbulb memories Memory for circumstances of learning about shocking, highly charged events 9/11, Kennedy assassination, memory for circumstances around event, not actually the actual event. EX: Don’t remember being in New York for 9/11 but remember where I was and what happened. Didn’t personally experience it Almost every generation can name such an event Where you were, and what you were doing? Flashbulb memories Circumstances remembering where you were you were doing who gave news how you & others felt what 2 Autobiographical Memory Flashbulb memories Brown & Kulik (1977) Proposed these memories are special Highly emotional, vivid detailed Like a photograph that resists fading Problem They had no way of assessing memory accuracy Flashbulb memories Report what happened when it happens and report again a while later and reports are compared Repeated recall Research using this task has shown that flashbulb memories change over time e.g., Talarico & Rubin (2003) Repeated recall Talarico & Rubin (2003) Memory for circumstances surrounding 9/11 vs. ordinary event Measured memory on September 12 Measured again either 1, 6, or 32 weeks later 3 Autobiographical Memory Repeated recall Talarico & Rubin (2003) Memory for both events showed similar rates of forgetting over time Repeated recall Talarico & Rubin (2003) Participants’ belief that their memory was accurate remained high for 9/11 but decreased for the ordinary event Flashbulb memories Repeated storytelling can increase accuracy Media coverage can decrease accurarcy Conclusions: Flashbulb memories may be rehearsed more ______________ can increase accuracy ______________ can decrease accuracy What people remember is a construction of what actually happened plus additional influences 4 Autobiographical Memory Constructive nature of memory Bartlett’s “War of the Ghosts” experiment Source monitoring errors Real-world knowledge affects memory Making inferences and schemas False memories Scripts Memory is constructive Bartlett (1932) Presented stories ("War of the Ghosts") and asked people to recall the stories after various delays Repeated reproduction Bartlett (1932) British participants were not familiar with folklore and so changed ideas to reflect british culture Results: Participants retained general meaning but not details More distortions over time Omissions as well as inaccuracies Inaccuracies tended to reflect participants’ own culture 5 Autobiographical Memory Source monitoring Source monitoring error: Misidentifying source of memory Cryptomnesia Unconscious plagiarism How source monitoring errors can influence memory Jacoby et al. (1989) nonfamous names makes them more familiar and thus more likely to be falsely identified as famous People were familiar with the fake names so when they saw them again they did not remember that they saw the names on the lists and thought they must be famous. Reading Failed to identify the source as the list that had been read the previous day Relevance to susceptibility to being scammed? How source monitoring errors can influence memory Older adults make more source monitoring errors and so they are more susceptible for being scammed. check out book Marsh, Cook, & Hicks (2006) Explored whether attributions to male versus female sources were biased by gender stereotypes I “like baseball.” Break Chris is male. (puzzle) Pat is female. Chris Read statement and source. Gender is revealed. I “like baseball.” Source? Source monitoring task. 6 Autobiographical Memory Marsh, Cook, & Hicks (2006) Results: Source monitoring score Male name Female name 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Masculine statements Feminine statements Marsh, Cook, & Hicks (2006) What would happen if you invoked sexual orientation stereotypes: “Chris “Pat is a gay male” is a lesbian female” Male name Female name Source monitoring score 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 Masculine statements Feminine statements Marsh, Cook, & Hicks (2006) Conclusion: Stereotypes can bias source-monitoring decision processes 7 ...
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