Exam 2 memory error

Loftus palmer 1974 showed traffic safety films

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Unformatted text preview: Depiction of actual accident Asked people to estimate speed of cars: About how fast were the cars going when they ________ each other? (smashed, collided, bumped, hit, contacted) Memory construction The verb suggests an appropriate answer 5 Memory Errors Results: Stronger verbs led to higher estimates of speed There was no broken glass in the original film Is one’s memory representation altered following leading questions? A week later, asked questions about the original film: Did you see broken glass? Results: Note: no broken glass in the film of “smashed” participants said “yes” 14% of “hit” participants said “yes” 32% Conclusion: Leading questions can influence what people remember 6 Memory Errors Misinformation effect MPI can change how a person remembers an event later Loftus, Showed Miller, & Burns (1978) slides of a red car hitting a pedestrian There was a stop sign in the slides Asked whether a second car passed the red car "while it was at the stop sign" (consistent) OR "while it was at the yield sign“ (MPI) Recognize which slides had been seen previously Participants given MPI were more likely to falsely recognize a slide containing a yield sign than participants given consistent information In another experiment, manipulated the time after encoding that MPI was given 20 20 min: 60% incorrectly recognized the yield sign 1 week: 80% incorrectly recognized the yield sign minutes or a week later Results: 20 minutes: ____ incorrectly recognized the yield sign 1 week: _____ incorrectly recognized the yield sign 7 Memory Errors Testimony by an eyewitness to a crime about what he/she saw during the crime One of the most convincing types of evidence to a jury Difficulties in perceiving a face Focus on selective details / narrowing attention Weapons focus- people will focus attention on weapon and not on persons face so they have a poor recollection of the face Own-race bias makes it difficult to recall features of someone's face in another race e.g., weapons focus Own-race bias Inaccurate memory for what was perceived reverse testing effect- after witnessing a crime witnesses are questioned and it not good for memory and make them more vulnerable to suggestions so they produce false memories Source Errors monitoring errors due to suggestion MPI Confirming feedback (Wells & Bradfield, 1998) Postevent testing (Chan et al., 2009) post-identification feedback effect reverse testing effect 8...
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