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G office schema script our conception of the sequence

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Unformatted text preview: conception of the sequence of actions that usually occur during a particular experience e.g., going to a restaurant Schemas and scripts can influence memory Provide a guide for making inferences about what we remember Can both help and hurt memory accuracy Brewer & Treyans (1981) Bransford & Johnson (1972) incidental memory test- do not know there will be a memory test Left participants in an office for 35 seconds, and then moved them to a different room Gave a surprise (incidental) recall test of items in the office 3 Memory Errors Results: Good memory for things __________ with "office" schema e.g., desk, chair Poor memory for objects __________ with their schema e.g., picnic basket Good memory for things consistent with office schema- positive effect Poor memory for objects inconsistent with their schema People made Construction errors: they remembered items that had not been there but were part of schema- counter productive, hurts memory People made _________________: they remembered items that had not been there but were part of the schema e.g., books "Washing Clothes" Gave people passages to read, with or without a title: Results: Without a title, passage was difficult to understand, and recall was poor Much better recall with title Conclusion: Title activated appropriate __________, allowing use of prior knowledge to help understand the passage Schemas must be activated during __________ to facilitate recall 4 Memory Errors Roediger & McDermott (1995) Saw word lists highly associated with some target word (sleep) that was not presented bed, rest, awake, tired, dream, wake, night, blanket, doze, slumber, snore, pillow, peace, yawn, drowsy Asked participants to recall list 55% recalled the target = false memory Misleading postevent information (MPI) Leading The questions misinformation effect Creating false memories for early events in people’s lives – in book Manipulated verb used to describe what the cars did. Loftus & Palmer (1974) Showed traffic safety films depicting car accidents...
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