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Exam 3 Sounds and Words

Exam 3 Sounds and Words - Language Perception and...

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Unformatted text preview: Language Perception and Comprehension: Sounds and Words What is language? A system of communication using sounds or symbols that enables us to express our feelings, thoughts, ideas, and experiences Properties: – – – symbolic arbitrary dynamic Creativity of Human Language What makes the structure of human language unique? – – – symbolic- letters and symbols make up words arbitrary-no definitive relationship between symbol and meaning dynamic- constantly changing Is hierarchical Is governed by rules These allow human language to be productive governed by rules= grammar, studies teaching animals sign language have not been able to teach grammar Productive- can produce an infinite number of sounds, words, and sentences Can produce a sentence you have never heard before and still understand it Language Processes Perception – Comprehension – how we identify words and parts of words as individual units how we understand the meaning of words and sentences Production – how we speak, write, and use language 1 Language Perception and Comprehension: Sounds and Words Components of Words English has 47 unique phonemes Phoneme – Smallest sound that, if changed, changes a word’s meaning – Correspondence with spelling? e.g., cat – 3 phonemes; book – 3 phonemes sh represent the single phoneme /ʃ/, while the letters k and c can both represent the phoneme /k/ (as in kit and cat). letters Components of Words Morpheme – – – Smallest units of language that have meaning or a grammatical function free morpheme – can stand alone bound morpheme – can’t stand alone Example: dogs – – dog– free morpheme s – bound morpheme Perceiving phonemes Phonemic restoration effect Verbal transformation effect McGurk effect Phonemic restoration- Listeners are using contexts using top down processing which allows listeners to fill in missing sounds. Warren()1970-Played a sentence with a sound omitted replaced with a cough-95% of listeners did not notice missing sound 2 Language Perception and Comprehension: Sounds and Words Phonemic restoration effect 95% did not notice a missing sound Context (top-down processing) allows listeners to fill in missing sounds – Warren (1970): Played a sentence with a sound omitted and replaced with a cough “The state governors met with their respective legi*latures convening in the capital city” – Results: ____ did not notice a missing sound Phonemic restoration effect Warren & Warren (1970): Played a spliced sentence with a different final word Last words of sentence was the identifier that relates word with context People heard the word appropriate to the context "It was found that the *eel was on the axle" "It was found that the *eel was on the shoe" "It was found that the *eel was on the orange" "It was found that the *eal was on the table" – Results: People heard a word _________ to the context Verbal transformation effect (VTE) An illusory change that occurs when an auditorily presented word is repeated for prolonged periods – Just said GAUZE repeatedly- did not change but many perceive changes. Perception becomes unstable Perception of phonemes becomes unstable 3 Language Perception and Comprehension: Sounds and Words McGurk effect Perception of an ________________ when auditory and visual speech cues conflict *intermediate phoneme We use visual cues to understand or aid what we hear GA..GA..GA.. BA..BA..BA.. Perceiving spoken words Factors that make perception of spoken words difficult: – – – Very fast Variability in phoneme pronunciation Speech segmentation Variability in phoneme pronunciation Coarticulation – Phonemes differ, depending on context BABY BOOZE BUNNY 4 Language Perception and Comprehension: Sounds and Words Speech segmentation We perceive individual words even though the speech signal is continuous I LOVE CHOLO COG NITIVE GY PSY Perceiving letters Word superiority effect – Flashed the first word and then were asked which of the letters were in the first flash. Did better on a than b or c People are better at recognizing letters in words (a) than letters presented by themselves (b) or in nonwords (c) Word superiority effect WORD Top-down processing LETTER Bottom-up processing FEATURE 5 Language Perception and Comprehension: Sounds and Words Understanding words Factors that influence our understanding of words’ meanings – – – – Word frequency Age of Acquisition (AoA) Imageability Ambiguity Ambiguity Different types: – – – Phonetic ambiguity Homophones (e.g., bear and bare) Syntactic ambiguity Have the missionaries eaten Lexical ambiguity I have to go to the bank this morning. Swinney People are faster to recognize words with high frequency. AoA- the age you learn a word, words learned early in life are recognized faster Imageability- words with images attached to them are recognized faster phonetic- different words that sound the same. ambiguous without context Syntactic- ambiguous without intonation Lexical- words have more than 1 meaning. Context helps (1979) Comprehending spoken words Lexical ambiguity (Swinney, 1979) – Participants listened to passages containing lexically ambiguous words (e.g., bug). “Rumor had it that, for years, the government building had been plagued with problems. The man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of the room.” 6 Language Perception and Comprehension: Sounds and Words Swinney (1979) Participants simultaneously performed a lexical decision task: Were shown a word as the ambiguous word was presented and had to decide if it was a word Swinney (1979) Independent variable: – The relation between words in the lexical decision task and the meaning of the ambiguous word in the passages: Related to the contextual meaning: ANT to the other meaning: SPY Unrelated: SKY Related Dependent variable: – RT to make lexical decisions Swinney (1979) Results: – *Both "bug" meanings Brain automatically accessed any meaning even if there is context Lexical decisions to ________________ were faster relative to the unrelated word Conclusion: – Even though context indicated that bug was an insect, listeners accessed both meanings of bug upon hearing the word 7 Language Perception and Comprehension: Sounds and Words Swinney (1979) In a second experiment, participants made lexical decisions 200 ms after ambiguous word was presented: in the corner… “corner” Swinney (1979) Results: – *ONLY the "insect" meaning Lexical decisions to ___________________ was faster relative to the unrelated word Conclusion: – Context helps to determine the appropriate meaning after a brief delay Only the meaning that fits the context remains active Comprehending written words Do we “sound out words” when we read? – Van Orden (1987) Asked participants decide whether a word belonged to a specified category, e.g., “vegetable” 8 Language Perception and Comprehension: Sounds and Words Van Orden (1987) Results: – Participants made more errors on _______________ e.g., *homophones saying “yes” to BEAT Conclusion: – Suggests that the printed word is sometimes translated into a sound representation /bēt/ is consistent with “beet”, which IS a vegetable e.g., 9 ...
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