Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) States 1 What is a TOT state? A temporary inability to recall a known word Accompanied by a strong feeling of knowing the word and a sense of imminent retrieval Cognitive processes of speech production Conceptualizing the idea Lexical selection Phonological encoding unsuccessful = TOT Why do TOTs occur? Transmission Deficit Model of TOTs(MacKay & Burke, 1990) TOTs are caused by weak connections between a word and its phonology What weakens these connections? Low frequency of use Non-recent use The normal aging process
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