Psych Attention - Attention What is attention? Everyone...

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Attention 1 What is attention? Everyone knows what attention is . It is the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought.” William James (1890) No one knows what attention is .” Harold Pashler (1998) Lapses of Attention What are some examples in everyday life of failing to attend to something? Reading your textbook but having no comprehension of what you’ve read Forgetting if you’ve locked the door after you leave your house Driving somewhere and once you arrive, realizing that you don’t really remember how you got there. Kinds of Attention Selective attention Dichotic listening task (auditory) Stroop task (visual) Divided attention Dual-task paradigm
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Attention 2 Selective Attention Definition Ability to focus on one specific message, object, or location Early research Dichotic listening : Pay attention to message in one ear (by shadowing ) and ignore the message in the other ear. Later, participants asked to recall material presented to unattended ear. “Tonight the Disney “Last week Pluto came Gang is going out to down with a terrible Downtown Disney to cold and had to go to have some food, fun, and…” Dwarf Doc, where he…” Tonight the Disney Gang is going out to Downtown Disney to have some food, fun, and… Shadowing: Dichotic Listening ATTENDED EAR UNATTENDED EAR Can we completely filter out the message to the unattended ear and attend only to the shadowed message? Cherry (1953) - YES Moray (1959) - NO Treisman (1960) - NO Dichotic Listening
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Attention 3 Unaware of most information presented to the unattended ear No knowledge of meaning Cherry (1953) We selectively attend by filtering out unattended information early in processing: Only the physical characteristics of messages are processed before selection occurs Problem Moray (1959) Treisman (1960) Early Selection model (e.g., Broadbent, 1958) Moray (1959) People noticed their own name (about 1/3 of the time) if it was inserted in the unattended message Cocktail party effect
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course EXP 3604 taught by Professor Fasig during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Psych Attention - Attention What is attention? Everyone...

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