Psych Exam 2 Memory Improvement

Psych Exam 2 Memory Improvement - Memory Improvement Memory...

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Unformatted text preview: Memory Improvement Memory Improvement • How to learn more effectively in class • How to study what you’ve learned more effectively • BUT … there are downsides How to Learn More Effectively in Class • Actively participate • Ask questions, do the demos, read before class • Critically analyze the information we are covering • What does it mean and why is it significant? How to Learn More Effectively in Class • Take good, comprehensive notes • “When I’m listening in class, it all makes sense (so I don’t need to write anything down)” • Long-term memory is good at retaining the gist, not the details • Notes are the basis for your subsequent studying 1 Memory Improvement How to Learn More Effectively in Class • Take good, comprehensive notes • “There is so much information that I can’t write everything down.” • Record the lecture • Swap notes with someone How to Learn More Effectively in Class • Take good, comprehensive notes • Use your own words, rather than just regurgitating mine from short-term memory • Incorporate notes from the book into your lecture notes How to Study More Effectively • What to do • • • • • Elaborate Generate and test Organize Take breaks Use variable encoding • What NOT to do • Do not memorize your notes • Do not create illusions of learning • Do not rely on metacognition 2 Memory Improvement What to Do • Elaborate • Associate what you are learning with other things you have stored in memory • Deep processing • WHAT, HOW, WHY? • Creating images Using Imagery to Improve Memory • Create images that link things, and visualize them interacting with each other • Mnemonics • Method of Loci (in book) • Pegword technique (in book) What to Do • Generate: Generation effect • Talk out loud when studying • Explain the material to someone else 3 Memory Improvement What to Do • Test: Testing effect • Self-test by asking yourself questions • “Test Yourself” & “Think About It” questions • Sample test questions available on “Study Help from Publisher” link in e-learning • Create your own questions • Complement individual studying with a study group • Make sure to generate answers! Testing Effect • Roediger & Karpicke (2006, Expt 1) Read prose passage Immediately Restudied passage OR took recall test 5 min, 2 days, OR 1 wk later Took recall test Roediger & Karpicke (2006) • Results: • Immediate testing resulted in better longterm retention than restudying 4 Memory Improvement Testing Effect • Roediger & Karpicke (2006, Expt 2) Read prose passage Immediately Restudied passage 3x (SSSS) OR took 3 tests (STTT) 5 min OR 1 wk later Took recall test Roediger & Karpicke (2006) • -Much less! Results: • Repeated testing is better for long-term retention than repeated study, even with reading the passage _____________! 3.4 times 14.2 times What to Do • Organize • Create organizational trees (see book) • Go through your lecture notes and organize them that same day • “Should I rewrite my notes?” • If so, use different words this time • Make your own study guides for exams 5 Memory Improvement What to Do Spacing effect-studying in shorter sessions help you retain information better than people who study once for a long period of time(for the same amount of time)-you get better feedback from yourself about what you do and do not know because you have time to let mem fade a bit Sleeping after studying helps improve memory • Take breaks • Study in a number of shorter study sessions rather than trying to learn everything at once • Spacing effect • Get some sleep • Memory consolidation • My only all-nighter in college Spacing Effect Did memory test 5 days after 1st lesson- free recall test-every concept they could remember or queued recall test-specific questions Smith & Rothkopf (1984) Gave an 8-hour statistics course, 4 lessons presented in one day (massed instruction) or four days (spaced instruction) DAY 1 Massed instruction Spaced instruction Lesson 1 DAY 2 DAY 3 DAY 4 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Spacing Effect Smith & Rothkopf (1984) Results: Memory tested 5 days later showed that spaced instruction led to 13% Greater free recall and 14% greater queued recall them massed instruction Distributing lessons over four days was more effective than a single-day presentation Memory tested five days later showed that spaced instruction led to 13% greater __________ and 14% greater _________ than massed instruction 6 Memory Improvement What to Do • Match learning and testing conditions? • Encoding specificity & state-dependent learning • Not always practical • Instead, do variable encoding • Smith, Glenberg, & Bjork (1978) Smith, Glenberg, & Bjork (1978) • Studied lists twice, either in same or different contexts: Study Studied in same Room A context: Studied in different Room A contexts: Study More practical:Variable encoding-having several places to study material instead of just one General thinking- causes you to make associations in the context you're in so you have multiple memory traces for retrieval Test Room A Encoding specificity- being in the same room that you will test in to study State-dependent learning- match your mood during studying when taking a test Test C (Recall = 40%) Test C (Recall = 61%) Room B • Results: Studying in two different rooms led to greater recall than studying in one room What NOT to Do • Do not memorize your notes • Instead, apply what you have learned • Come up your own examples recognition and retrieval uses very different cognitive resources. Retrieval(fill in the blank) is much more difficult and does not benefit from memorization Focus on elaborating 7 Memory Improvement What NOT to Do • Do not create “illusions of learning” • Rereading • Leads to greater fluency, not better memory • Highlighting Rereading makes you feel like you're learning because you will recognize it but you won't be able to recall Don't highlight too much but highlight the right things. Process the material dont just do the motion of highlighting • Seems elaborative, but often becomes automatic What NOT to Do Use exams as feedback mechanism to know what you need to work on and study more • Do not rely on metacognitive indicators • Our knowledge about our own memory is not always accurate • Pick up your exam! 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course EXP 3604 taught by Professor Fasig during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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