Psych Exam 2 Modal Model of Memory

Psych Exam 2 Modal Model of Memory - Modal Model of Memory...

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Unformatted text preview: Modal Model of Memory What is memory? The processes involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present Modal model of memory (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968) Sensory Memory Holds information from the senses for a very brief time Filling in the blanks when stimulation is intermittent Sperling (1960) – in book Large Memory exists in stages that each has a specific function. Hold on to trace of stimulus when it dies or it is gone (sparkler example) Sperling- Flashed large matrix of letters and asked people what they remembered. People saw a lot of it but when writing it down it decayed quickly(less than a second) and couldn’t write it down capacity – Sensory memory registers all or most of the information that hits our visual receptors Very brief duration – Information from sensory memory decays quickly, within less than a second 1 Modal Model of Memory Short-Term Memory (STM) Things you are thinking about right now but will not stay there forever. Stores small amounts of information for a brief duration Limited Brief capacity (5-9 items) duration (15-30 sec) STM Control processes: active processes that can be executed by the person Rehearsal Strategies used to make a stimulus more memorable Strategies of attention Long-Term Memory (LTM) “Archive” of information about past events in our lives and knowledge we have learned Large capacity (virtually unlimited) – Ranges from memories stored a few minutes ago to decades ago Semi-permanent duration 2 Modal Model of Memory Serial Position Curve Our class demo: Number of People Who Recalled Free recall of unrelated lists of words- words early and late in the lists have higher probability of recall than words in the middle. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Serial Position Serial Position Curve Murdoch (1962): Primacy and recency affect- recalling words at the beginning and the end of lists respectively (next slide) 3 Modal Model of Memory Serial Position Curve Support for A & S model Two serial position effects Primacy Effect Better recall for words at beginning of list Recalled from LTM Recency Primacy-more time for rehearsal so it can be transferred from STM to LTM so you have better memory for it. Recency-last few words have not been lost from STM so you can recall them, last dew words are uusually written down first so they will not be lost. Effect Better recall for words at end of list Recalled from STM Serial Position Curve Support for A & S model Effect on serial position curve Speeding -Speeding up will result in less rehearsal so it will reduce or eliminate primacy effect and there will be no effect on recency -Recency effect will be eliminated if delayed recall. No effect on primacy up presentation rate? _____________________ Delaying the start of recall with an interfering task? Distorting serial position- A list of related words or lists of abstract or concrete words, relatedness to words _____________________ Evidence for separate STM and LTM in the brain Brain imaging Some studies show activation of different areas for STM and LTM (e.g., Talmi et al., 2005), but not all Neuropsychological studies Impaired *K.F- motorcycle accident and STM was impaired, could not do anything that required STM like getting instructions but could remember everything in LTM. Was able to transfer things to LTM as well (<----double dissociation--->) *H.M- video, next slide STM, intact LTM – K.F. Intact STM, impaired LTM – Clive Wearing – H.M. 4 Modal Model of Memory Neuropsychological studies Watch this video for 10 min Clive Wearing Damage to temporal lobe from viral encephalitis (in his 40s) He has a functioning STM but cannot form new long-term memories. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wDN DRDJy-vo Neuropsychological studies H.M (Henry Molaison) Neurosurgery to treat severe epileptic seizures in 1953 (age 27) – Bilateral removal of large portions of temporal lobes and limbic system: Most of hippocampus, surrounding cortex, and amygdala H.M.’s perspective “Right now I'm wondering, Have I done or said anything amiss? You see, at this moment everything looks unclear to me, but what happened just before? That's what worries me. It's like waking from a dream; I just don't remember.” Listen to 1st 5min Hear his NPR interview (2/24/07): http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=758 4970 5 Modal Model of Memory H.M.’s Impairments Lost “old” long-term memories from age 16 through 27 11-year retrograde amnesia Unable to acquire “new” long-term memories. Anterograde BUT amnesia … some “islands” of remembering Impaired memory of daily life H.M.’s Intact Abilities Retrograde amnesia-cannot remember a certain period of time IOR- Famous events that happened after surgery that he could remember, knew Kennedy was shot and what an astronaut was so some things snuck into LTM. Didn’t know where he lived, who took care of him, what year it was, who the president was Used as an ex. of someone who was impaired in memory but could still function in life High average intelligence (IQ = 118) Normal STM Forward digit span = 7, backward digit span = 5 Asked to describe an ambiguous sentence (H.M and other normal adults)- which proved he had other impairments, not just memory because he could not get the idea of the ambiguous sentence Retained “old” long-term memories, only up to age 16 Can perform mental math Preservation of other cognitive functions Reasoning, perception, language (?) Modal model of memory Conclusions Motivated research for many years, but… – Flow diagrams have been replaced by other models where cognition operates in parallel, not a series of stages. – Had difficulties accounting for some findings K.F.: With an impaired STM, how did K.F. transfer information into LTM? Recency effect for information in LTM, well beyond time limits in STM 6 Modal Model of Memory Long-term Recency Effect 7 ...
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