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Unformatted text preview: Working Memory Problems with STM
STM can be used for more than just storing information.
It is possible to carry out two STM tasks simultaneously
Led to the development of a new model
called working memory Working Memory (WM) differs from STM because it has mult
components each with own function A limited-capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information
for complex tasks such as
comprehension, learning, and reasoning.
Has multiple components, each with its own function Working Memory model
(Baddeley et al., 2009) 1 Working Memory Phonological Loop
Holds verbal and auditory information
Has two components: What STM used to be
Phonological store-Limited capacity part,
duration of a couple seconds, time based
capacity as opposed to # Phonological store Articulatory rehearsal process Evidence for phonological loop
Phonological similarity effect
Articulatory suppression Phonological similarity effect People make more errors when they hear
similar sounding Phonological similarity effect
Confusion of letters or words that sound similar Remember W ickelgren’s (1965) and Conrad’s (1964) research?
Phonological store holds items in terms of their sounds, making similar items confusable 2 Working Memory One Syllable Five Syllables Sloth
Aluminum One syllable was faster to read • W hich list is faster to read aloud?
• W hich list is harder to recall? Word-length effect
Baddeley, Thomson, & Buchanan (1975)
Looked at memory span of 1-5 syllable words Results: Short words were recalled more than long words (word- length effect) People recalled as many words as they could say aloud in ________________ Conclusions: People recalled as many words as they could
say aloud in 1.8 seconds
Reading rate determines how many words you
Short words get more rehearsal in a period of
time so there is better recall.
Reading rate determines what you can recall _________________ determines how many words you can rehearse Long words take longer to rehearse, forcing some to be lost from the phonological store Articulatory suppression (short words) Articulatory suppression
Repetition of an irrelevant sound or word (e.g., “la, la, la”) while learning words to be recalled
reduces memory Eliminates word-length effect Repeating the irrelevant sound overloads the phonological loop so that even ______________ can no longer get
rehearsed 3 Working Memory Visuospatial Sketch Pad Different components handle different
components of information. Holds visual and spatial information
For tasks where you form a picture in your mind
e.g., tasks using visual codes in STM (remember Della Sala et al., 1999?)
e.g., visual imagery Toms et al. (1994)
Asked people to visualize a matrix and then follow instructions Followed directions for where to put number.
This was was imagery, matrix was not in front
of them. One group did it with eyes clothes
and one while looking at a blue and white
shifting patterns. Then wrote down what they
saw. * Toms et al. (1994)
Performed imagery task under two conditions:
No visual interference: eyes shut
Visual interference: looked at a shifting pattern
Then wrote down the #s in a blank matrix 4 Working Memory People were more accurate when there was
no interference(eyes shut) compared to when
there was visual interference(shifting image) Toms et al. (1994)
People were more accurate when there was ________ interference (85%) compared to
when there was _______ interference (69%)
Using the visuospatial sketch pad is disrupted by visual interference Doesn’t store information. Handles so many
things so is hard to study Central Executive
Coordinates how information is used by the phonological loop and visuospatial
Serves as an “attention controller” Central Executive
Letters are presented one at a time. Say “yes” if the current letter matches the letter that was
presented “n” letters back, where n ranges from
1 to 3
1-back H L X 2-back L R X 3-back 5 Working Memory N-back Task
People have the most difficulty with 2- and 3-back task, relative to 1-back
NO NO YES NO NO NO NO YES M X M L X P F P The 2- and 3-back tasks most likely require the resources of the central executive Episodic Buffer Hasn’t really been tested but is recent thinking The episodic buffer represents a way of increasing storage capacity in W M and
communicating with LTM Proposed to explain LTM influences on W M WM and the Brain
Prefrontal cortex necessary to hold information in memory for short periods of time Monkeys without a prefrontal cortex have difficult with a delayed-response task Why infants younger than 8 months don’t have object permanence Neurons in the prefrontal cortex fire to presentation of a stimulus and continue firing as this stimulus is
held in working memory 6 Working Memory WM and the Brain distributed processing Many areas in the brain are involved in W M
distributing processing 7 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course EXP 3604 taught by Professor Fasig during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.
- Fall '08