Psych Exam 2 Working Memory

Psych Exam 2 Working Memory - Working Memory Problems with...

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Unformatted text preview: Working Memory Problems with STM STM can be used for more than just storing information. It is possible to carry out two STM tasks simultaneously Led to the development of a new model called working memory Working Memory (WM) differs from STM because it has mult components each with own function A limited-capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning. Has multiple components, each with its own function Working Memory model (Baddeley et al., 2009) 1 Working Memory Phonological Loop Holds verbal and auditory information Has two components: What STM used to be Phonological store-Limited capacity part, duration of a couple seconds, time based capacity as opposed to # Phonological store Articulatory rehearsal process Evidence for phonological loop Phonological similarity effect Word-length effect Articulatory suppression Phonological similarity effect People make more errors when they hear similar sounding Phonological similarity effect Confusion of letters or words that sound similar Remember W ickelgren’s (1965) and Conrad’s (1964) research? Phonological store holds items in terms of their sounds, making similar items confusable 2 Working Memory One Syllable Five Syllables Sloth Mumps School Greece Switch Math Maine Scroll Zinc Hippopotamus Tuberculosis University Yugoslavia Refrigerator Physiology Louisiana Periodical Aluminum One syllable was faster to read • W hich list is faster to read aloud? • W hich list is harder to recall? Word-length effect Baddeley, Thomson, & Buchanan (1975) Looked at memory span of 1-5 syllable words Results: Short words were recalled more than long words (word- length effect) People recalled as many words as they could say aloud in ________________ Conclusions: People recalled as many words as they could say aloud in 1.8 seconds Reading rate determines how many words you can rehearse Short words get more rehearsal in a period of time so there is better recall. Reading rate determines what you can recall _________________ determines how many words you can rehearse Long words take longer to rehearse, forcing some to be lost from the phonological store Articulatory suppression (short words) Articulatory suppression Repetition of an irrelevant sound or word (e.g., “la, la, la”) while learning words to be recalled reduces memory Eliminates word-length effect Repeating the irrelevant sound overloads the phonological loop so that even ______________ can no longer get rehearsed 3 Working Memory Visuospatial Sketch Pad Different components handle different components of information. Holds visual and spatial information For tasks where you form a picture in your mind e.g., tasks using visual codes in STM (remember Della Sala et al., 1999?) e.g., visual imagery Toms et al. (1994) Asked people to visualize a matrix and then follow instructions Followed directions for where to put number. This was was imagery, matrix was not in front of them. One group did it with eyes clothes and one while looking at a blue and white shifting patterns. Then wrote down what they saw. * Toms et al. (1994) Performed imagery task under two conditions: No visual interference: eyes shut Visual interference: looked at a shifting pattern Then wrote down the #s in a blank matrix 4 Working Memory People were more accurate when there was no interference(eyes shut) compared to when there was visual interference(shifting image) Toms et al. (1994) Results: People were more accurate when there was ________ interference (85%) compared to when there was _______ interference (69%) Conclusion: Using the visuospatial sketch pad is disrupted by visual interference Doesn’t store information. Handles so many things so is hard to study Central Executive Coordinates how information is used by the phonological loop and visuospatial sketch pad. Serves as an “attention controller” Central Executive N-back task Letters are presented one at a time. Say “yes” if the current letter matches the letter that was presented “n” letters back, where n ranges from 1 to 3 B H 1-back H L X 2-back L R X 3-back 5 Working Memory N-back Task Results: People have the most difficulty with 2- and 3-back task, relative to 1-back NO NO YES NO NO NO NO YES M X M L X P F P The 2- and 3-back tasks most likely require the resources of the central executive Episodic Buffer Hasn’t really been tested but is recent thinking The episodic buffer represents a way of increasing storage capacity in W M and communicating with LTM Proposed to explain LTM influences on W M WM and the Brain Prefrontal cortex necessary to hold information in memory for short periods of time Monkeys without a prefrontal cortex have difficult with a delayed-response task Why infants younger than 8 months don’t have object permanence Neurons in the prefrontal cortex fire to presentation of a stimulus and continue firing as this stimulus is held in working memory 6 Working Memory WM and the Brain distributed processing Many areas in the brain are involved in W M distributing processing 7 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course EXP 3604 taught by Professor Fasig during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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