BIOL 430 2010 lecture 3 handout 6 slides

BIOL 430 2010 lecture 3 handout 6 slides - Cell fate Cell...

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1 BIOL 430 2010 January 15 th Lecture # 3 Cell Fate Maps, Determined vs. Specified. How can cells become different? Induction, BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) Competence of responding cells, Positional Information, Concept of a Morphogen, Lateral Inhibition, Localization of cytoplasmic determinants, asymmetrical cell division Cell fate • “Cell fate” is what cells should become. • DNA mRNA Protein transcription & processing nuclear export, translation & modification • Differential gene expression controls cell differentiation. • Common house-keeping genes do not usually cause BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) cells to differ. • Developmentally specific transcription factors direct differential gene expression. • BUT just because a gene is transcribed does not mean that is active Fate Mapping BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) Fate map of the Xenopus embryo before the onset of gastrulation. Fig. 3.44 p.126 Determining Fates of Cells Fluorescent macromolecule BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) Injection of fluorescent dyes (florescent-dextran 10,000MW) in Zebra fish blastomeres 2-Cell 4-Cell 8-Cell 16-Cell 32-Cell Advantages: low tech, easy to do Disadvantages: usually labels many cells, diluted by division BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) Fig. 3.43 p.126 Fate mapping of the early Xenopus embryo pigmented donor tissue BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) website link Example: Quail-Chick Chimeras This marks cells well and it is permanent. But it is difficult to do—surgery.
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2 AB P1 ABa ABp P1 P2 EMS ABa ABp Cell Lineage analysis in C. elegans Direct Observation: BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) 1983 John Sulston and coworkers published the complete lineage of C. elegans . It took them many years of work to build it up because they had to analyse the embryo by directly observing the development of a few cells per embryo under the microscope. Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine 2002 BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) C. elegans lineage analysis is the ultimate fate map. The fate of each individual cell is known.
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2011 for the course BIOL 430 taught by Professor Dr.ianchin-sang during the Winter '10 term at Queens University.

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BIOL 430 2010 lecture 3 handout 6 slides - Cell fate Cell...

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