BIOL 430 2010 lecture 3 handout

BIOL 430 2010 lecture 3 handout - BIOL 430 2010 January...

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BIOL 430 2010 anuary 15 th January 15 Lecture # 3 ell Fate Maps Determined vs Specified Cell Fate Maps, Determined vs. Specified. How can cells become different? Induction, Competence of responding cells, Positional Information, Concept of a Morphogen, Lateral Inhibition, Localization of cytoplasmic determinants, symmetrical cell division asymmetrical cell division BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca)
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Cell fate • “Cell fate” is what cells should become. • DNA mRNA Protein transcription & processing nuclear export, translation & modification • Differential gene expression controls cell differentiation. • Common house-keeping genes do not usually cause cells to differ. • Developmentally specific transcription factors direct differential gene expression. • BUT just because a gene is transcribed does not mean that is active BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca)
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Fate Mapping Fig. 3.44 p.126 BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) Fate map of the Xenopus embryo before the onset of gastrulation.
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Determining Fates of Cells Fluorescent macromolecule Injection of fluorescent dyes (florescent-dextran 10,000MW) in Zebra fish 2-Cell 4-Cell 8-Cell 16-Cell 32-Cell blastomeres Advantages: low tech, easy to do isadvantages: usually labels many cells diluted by division BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) Disadvantages: usually labels many cells, diluted by division
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Fig. 3.43 p.126 Fate mapping of the early Xenopus embryo BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca)
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pigmented donor tissue xample: Example: Quail-Chick Chimeras This marks cells well and is permanent But it is BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) website link it is permanent. But it is difficult to do—surgery.
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Direct Observation: AB P1 ABa ABp 1 P2 ABa ABp P1 EMS Cell Lineage analysis in C. elegans gy g 1983 John Sulston and coworkers published the complete lineage f elegans It took them many years of work to build it up of C. elegans . It took them many years of work to build it up because they had to analyse the embryo by directly observing the development of a few cells per embryo under the microscope. Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) 2002
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BIOL 430 Molecular Genetics of Development 2010 Dr. Ian Chin-Sang (www.chin-sang.ca) C. elegans lineage analysis is the ultimate fate map. The fate of each individual cell is known.
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What determines a cell to be come differentiated ? Determination implies a stable change in the internal state of a cell and most likely due to a change in gene activity.
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2011 for the course BIOL 430 taught by Professor Dr.ianchin-sang during the Winter '10 term at Queens University.

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BIOL 430 2010 lecture 3 handout - BIOL 430 2010 January...

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