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Seminar 8 - Handout - to apical enrichment in the...

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Seminar 8 – Sample Questions Apical localization of wingless transcripts is required for Wingless signaling Simmonds, A.J., dosSantos, G., Livne-Bar, I. and Krause, H.M. Major Findings: Wingless transcript is apically localized - Localization is transcript specific and not cell specific - Specific sequences of the 3’UTR are required for localization Apical localization of wingless transcript is: - Responsible for proper WG signaling; alteration of localization affects signaling - Important to WG protein autoregulation - Essential for robust signaling (WG rescuing activity) - Important for WG protein distribution Important Terms: Polarized Epithelia: Epithelial cells are prototype examples of apically and basally polarized cells (that is, they express different proteins at either end). This is required for their specialized import/export functions. 3’UTR : The 3’ untranslated region of the mRNA contains the poly-A tail and binding sites for transcription factors. In this study it was shown to contain the wingless localization elements leading
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Unformatted text preview: to apical enrichment in the ectodermal cells. wingless: wingless is a secreted signaling molecule responsible for segment polarity. the wild type phenotype is denticle belts with expanses of naked cuticle. It is part of the wnt gene family. Deletion mapping: This method using deletions to determine specific areas of genes. The experimenters used deletion mapping to determine the wingless localization elements as seen in the figure below. Western blots: separates proteins by length of polypeptide using gel electrophoresis Inducible expression: In this study heat shock was used to induce expression. Rescuing activity: Mating of null mutants with different transgenics can determine what characteristics of the transgenic are required for rescuing. In this study apical localization of wingless transcripts was required for appropriate signaling. Great resource: http://www.stanford.edu/~rnusse/wntwindow.html...
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