Seminar 8 - March 24

Seminar 8 - March 24 - + Apical localization of wingless...

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Unformatted text preview: + Apical localization of wingless transcripts is required for Wingless signaling Simmonds et al. 2001 Emma Bedoukian, Layla Hall, and Alex Volenik + Outline n Introduction n Epithelial Cell and Apical/Basal Polarization n Transcript Localization n What is wingless ? n Results n Apical localization of wg transcript n Functional relevance of localization n Discussion n Why localization is important n Conservation n Localization in other pathways n Extensions and Conclusion n Remaining questions and future research n Practical application and implications in cancer + Introduction n Asymmetry in: n Shape n Composition n Structure n Two main processes contribute to polarity: n Protein trafficking n mRNA localization prior to translation Epithelial Cells have Apical/Basal Polarization + Examples of Transcript Localization n Oskar is localized to the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte n Via the 3UTR n The A/P and D/V boundaries are developed in part due to the apical localization of Gurken mRNA in the oocyte Wingless (wg) Gurken and Oskar + Wingless (Wg) n Wingless is a secreted signaling molecule n Reinforce action of pair-rule genes that set up parasegments n Signal through cell-to-cell communication to establish cell fates within each parasegment Wg is a segment polarity gene wg wildtype (left) has denticle bands confined to anterior of segment. In wg mutant (right) denticles cover ventral surface. + Wingless (wg) n Vertebrate ortholog: WNT1 n Interchangeable function: n Due to downstream parts of signaling pathway n Most of the pathway components are apically localized or enriched And the Wnt gene family + WG is apically localized WG protein is apically enriched around wg expressing cells Gonzelez et al. 1991 Interested in transport of WG between cells In extracellular space, WG is found apically, often attached to plasma membrane Strigini and Cohen, 2000 Interested in WG movement when forming gradients WG forms unstable gradient at basolateral end, in which vesicles and transport proteins work quickly to maintain apical enrichment So this study aimed to determine if localization was due to protein trafficking or transcript localization + Major Findings wg transcript is apically localized Localization is transcript specific, not cell specific Specific sequences of the 3UTR are required for localization Apical localization of wg transcript is: Responsible for proper WG signaling; alteration of localization affects signaling Important to WG protein autoregulation Essential for robust signalling (WG rescuing activity) Important for WG protein distribution + Like WG, wg is apically localized n Baker et al, 1988 n Use in situ hybridization to show that wg is apically localized n Present study makes use of n Flourescent in situ hybridization n Confocal microscopy...
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This note was uploaded on 12/06/2011 for the course BIOL 430 taught by Professor Dr.ianchin-sang during the Winter '10 term at Queens University.

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Seminar 8 - March 24 - + Apical localization of wingless...

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