189522690-Welding-Secrets-Revealed.pdf - Welding Table of Contents Page 1 of 3 Welding Theory and Application Table of Contents LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

189522690-Welding-Secrets-Revealed.pdf - Welding Table of...

This preview shows page 1 out of 605 pages.

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 605 pages?

Unformatted text preview: Welding - Table of Contents Page 1 of 3 Welding Theory and Application Table of Contents LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS LIST OF TABLES WARNINGS CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION l Section I - General l Section II - Theory CHAPTER 2 - SAFETY PRECAUTIONS l Section I - General l Section II - in Oxyfuel Welding l Section III - in Arc Welding and Cutting l Section IV - for Gas Shielded Arc Welding l Section V - for Welding and Cutting Containers That Have Held Combustibles l Section VI - for Welding and Cutting Polyurethane Foam Filled Assemblies CHAPTER 3 - PRINT READING AND WELDING SYMBOLS l Section I - Print Reading l Section II - Weld and Welding Symbols CHAPTER 4 - JOINT DESIGN AND PREPARATION OF METALS CHAPTER 5 - WELDING AND CUTTING EQUIPMENT l Section I - Oxyacetylene Welding Equipment l Section II - Oxyacetylene Cutting Equipment l Section III - Arc Welding Equipment and Accessories l Section IV - Resistance Welding Equipment l Section V - Thermit Welding Equipment l Section VI - Forge Welding Tools and Equipment CHAPTER 6 - WELDING TECHNIQUES l Section I - Description l Section II - Nomenclature of the Weld :\PDF\Welding_Table_of_Contents.htm 15/10/2004 Welding - Table of Contents l Section III - Types of Welds and Welded Joints l Section IV - Welding Positions l Section V - Expansion and Contraction in Welding Operations l Section VI - Welding Problems and Solutions Page 2 of 3 CHAPTER 7 - METALS IDENTIFICATION l Section I - Characteristics l Section II - Standard Metal Designations l Section III - General Description and Weldability of Ferrous Metals l Section IV - General Description and Weldability of Nonferrous Metals CHAPTER 8 - ELECTRODES AND FILLER METALS l Section I - Types of Electrodes l Section II - Other Filler Metals CHAPTER 9 - WELDING MAINTENANCE CHAPTER 10 - ARC WELDING AND CUTTING PROCESSES l Section I - General l Section II - Arc Processes l Section III - Related Processes CHAPTER 11 - OXYGEN FUEL GAS WELDING PROCEDURES l Section I - Welding Processes and Techniques l Section II - Welding and Brazing Ferrous Metals l Section III - Related Processes l Section IV - Welding, Brazing, and Soldering Nonferrous Metals CHAPTER 12 - SPECIAL APPLICATIONS l Section I - Underwater Cutting and Welding with the Electric Arc l Section II - Underwater Cutting with Oxyfuel l Section III - Metallizing l Section IV - Flame Cutting Steel and Cast Iron l Section V - Flame Treating Metal l Section VI - Cutting and Hard Surfacing with the Electric Arc l Section VII - Armor Plate Welding and Cutting l Section VIII - Pipe Welding :\PDF\Welding_Table_of_Contents.htm 15/10/2004 Welding - Table of Contents l Section IX - Welding Cast Iron, Cast Steel, Carbon Steel, and Forgings l Section X - Forge Welding l Section XI - Heat Treatment of Steel l Section XII - Other Welding Processes Page 3 of 3 CHAPTER 13 - DESTRUCTIVE AND NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTING l Section I - Performance Testing l Section II - Visual Inspection and Corrections l Section III - Physical Testing APPENDIX A - REFERENCES APPENDIX B - PROCEDURE GUIDES FOR WELDING APPENDIX C - TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES APPENDIX D - MATERIALS USED FOR BRAZING, WELDING, SOLDERING, CUTTING, AND METALLIZING APPENDIX E - MISCELLANEOUS DATA GLOSSARY :\PDF\Welding_Table_of_Contents.htm 15/10/2004 List of Illustrations Page 1 of 14 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 2-1. Welding helmet and hand-held shield Figure 2-2. Welding helmet and shields Figure 2-3. Safety goggles Figure 2-4. Protective clothing Figure 2-5. Welding booth with mechanical ventilation Figure 2-6. Process diagram for air carbon arc cutting Figure 2-7. Circuit block diagram AAC Figure 2-8. Safe way to weld container that held combustibles Figure 3-1. Construction lines Figure 3-2. Standard locations of elements of a welding symbol Figure 3-3. Basic and supplementary arc and gas welding symbols Figure 3-4. Process or specification references Figure 3-5. Definite process reference Figure 3-6. No process or specification reference Figure 3-7. Weld-all-around and field weld symbols Figure 3-8. Resistance spot and resistance seam welds Figure 3-9. Arrow side fillet welding symbol Figure 3-10. Other side fillet welding symbol Figure 3-11. Plug and slot welding symbols indicating location and dimensions of the weld Figure 3-12. Arrow side V groove welding symbol Figure 3-13. Other side V groove welding symbol Figure 3-14. Welds on the arrow side of the joint Figure 3-15. Welds on the other side of the joint Figure 3-16. Welds on both sides of joint Figure 3-17. Spot, seam, and flash or upset weld symbols Figure 3-18. Construction of symbols, perpendicular leg always to the left Figure 3-19. Construction of symbols, arrow break toward chamfered member Figure 3-20. Construction of symbols, symbols placed to read left to right :\PDF\Welding\ILLUS.htm 15/10/2004 List of Illustrations Page 2 of 14 Figure 3-21. Combination of weld symbols Figure 3-22. Complete penetration indication Figure 3-23. Construction of symbols, special types of welds Figure 3-24. Multiple reference lines Figure 3-25. Supplementary data Figure 3-26. Supplementary symbols Figure 3-27. Dimensions of fillet welds Figure 3-28. Combined intermittent and continuous welds Figure 3-29. Extent of fillet welds Figure 3-30. Dimensions of chain intermittent fillet welds Figure 3-31. Dimensions of staggered intermittent fillet welds Figure 3-32. Application of dimensions to intermittent fillet weld symbols Figure 3-33. Surface contour of fillet welds Figure 3-34. Plug and slot welding symbols indicating location and dimensions of the weld Figure 3-35. Surface contour of plug welds and slot welds Figure 3-36. Surface contour of plug welds and slot welds with user's standard finish symbol Figure 3-37. Slot weld dimensions Figure 3-38. Dimensions of arc spot and arc seam welds Figure 3-39. Extent of arc spot welding Figure 3-40. Number of arc spot welds in a joint Figure 3-41. Surface contour of arc spot and arc seam welds Figure 3-42. Groove weld dimensions Figure 3-43. Groove weld dimensions having no general note Figure 3-44. Groove welds with differing dimensions Figure 3-45. Groove weld dimensions for welds extending through the members joined Figure 3-46. Groove weld dimensions for welds extending partly through the members joined Figure 3-47. Dimensions of groove welds with specified root penetration Figure 3-48. Flare groove welds Figure 3-49. Root opening :\PDF\Welding\ILLUS.htm 15/10/2004 List of Illustrations Page 3 of 14 Figure 3-50. Back or backing weld symbol Figure 3-51. Surface contour of groove welds Figure 3-52. Contours obtained by welding Figure 3-53. Flush contour by machining Figure 3-54. Convex contour by machining Figure 3-55. Surface contour of back or backing welds Figure 3-56. Melt-thru weld symbol Figure 3-57. Surface contour of melt-thru welds Figure 3-58. Size of surfaces built up by welding Figure 3-59. Flange weld symbols Figure 3-60. Size of resistance spot welds Figure 3-61. Strength of resistance spot welds Figure 3-62. Spacing of resistance spot welds Figure 3-63. Extent of resistance spot weld Figure 3-64. Number of resistance spot welds Figure 3-65. Contour of resistance spot welds Figure 3-66. Size of resistance seam welds Figure 3-67. Strength of resistance seam welds Figure 3-68. Length of resistance seam welds Figure 3-69. Extent of resistance seam welds Figure 3-70. Dimensioning of intermittent resistance seam welds Figure 3-71. Contour of resistance seam welds Figure 3-72. Embossment on arrow-side member of joint for projection welding Figure 3-73. Embossment on other-side member of joint for projection welding Figure 3-74. Diameter of projection welds Figure 3-75. Strength of projection welds Figure 3-76. Spacing of projection welds Figure 3-77. Number of projection welds Figure 3-78. Extent of projection welds :\PDF\Welding\ILLUS.htm 15/10/2004 List of Illustrations Page 4 of 14 Figure 3-79. Contour of projection welds Figure 3-80. Surface contour of lash or upset welds Figure 4-1. The five basic types of joints Figure 4-2. Inaccessible welds Figure 5-1. Stationary oxygen cylinder manifold and other equipment Figure 5-2. Station outlet for oxygen or acetylene Figure 5-3. Stationary acetylene cylinder manifold and other equipment Figure 5-4. Acetylene generator and operating equipment Figure 5-5. Portable oxyacetylene welding and cutting equipment Figure 5-6. Acetylene cylinder construction Figure 5-7. Oxygen cylinder construction Figure 5-8. Single stage oxygen regulator Figure 5-9. Two stage oxygen regulator Figure 5-10. Mixing head for injector type welding torch Figure 5-11. Equal pressure type general purpose welding torch Figure 5-12. Oxyacetylene cutting torch Figure 5-13. Diagram of oxyacetylene cutting tip Figure 5-14. Cutting attachment for welding torch Figure 5-15. Making a bevel on a circular path with a cutting machine Figure 5-16. Machine for making four oxyacetylene cuts simultaneously Figure 5-17. Cutaway view of DC welding generator Figure 5-18. Direct current welding machine Figure 5-19. Alternating current arc welding machine Figure 5-20. Gas tungsten-arc welding setup Figure 5-21. Argon regulator with flowmeter Figure 5-22. TIG welding torch Figure 5-23. MIG welding torch Figure 5-24. Connection diagram for MIG welding Figure 5-25. Metal-arc welding electrode holders :\PDF\Welding\ILLUS.htm 15/10/2004 List of Illustrations Page 5 of 14 Figure 5-26. Atomic hydrogen welding torch Figure 5-27. Chipping hammer and wire brush Figure 5-28. Welding table Figure 5-29. Molten metal transfer with a bare electrode Figure 5-30. Arc action obtained with a light coated electrode Figure 5-31. Arc action obtained with a shielded arc electrode Figure 5-32. Electrode drying ovens Figure 5-33. Correct electrode taper Figure 5-34. Polarity of welding current Figure 5-35. Effect of polarity on weld shape Figure 5-36. AC wave Figure 5-37. Rectified ac wave Figure 5-38. Comparison of penetration contours Figure 5-39. Resistance spot welding machine and accessories Figure 5-40. Projection welding Figure 5-41. Thermit welding crucible and mold Figure 5-42. Portable forge Figure 5-43. Blacksmith's anvil Figure 6-1. Chart of welding processes Figure 6-2. Equipment setup for arc stud welding Figure 6-3. Equipment setup for gas shielded arc stud welding Figure 6-4. Submerged arc welding process Figure 6-5. Gas tungsten arc welding Figure 6-6. Gas metal arc welding Figure 6-7. Shielded metal arc welding Figure 6-8. Furnace brazing operation Figure 6-9. Typical induction brazing coils and joints Figure 6-10. Chemical bath dip brazing Figure 6-11. Infrared brazing apparatus :\PDF\Welding\ILLUS.htm 15/10/2004 List of Illustrations Page 6 of 14 Figure 6-12. Steps in making a thermit weld Figure 6-13. Nomenclature of welds Figure 6-14. Heat affected zones in a multipass weld Figure 6-15. Welding prodedure schedule - various welds Figure 6-16. Basic joint types Figure 6-17. Butt joints in light sections Figure 6-18. Butt joints in heavy sections Figure 6-19. Corner joints for sheets and plates Figure 6-20. Edge joints for light sheets and plates Figure 6-21. Lap joints Figure 6-22. Tee joint-single pass fillet weld Figure 6-23. Edge preparation for tee joints Figure 6-24. Applications of fillet welds - single and double Figure 6-25. Basic groove welds Figure 6-26. Typical weld joints Figure 6-27. Types of groove welds Figure 6-28. Surfacing, plug, and slot welds Figure 6-29. Flash, seam, spot, and upset welds Figure 6-30. Welding positions - groove welds - plate Figure 6-31. Welding positions - fillet welds - plate Figure 6-32. Welding positions - pipe welds Figure 6-33. Diagram of tack welded pipe on rollers Figure 6-34. Diagram of horizontal pipe weld with uphand method Figure 6-35. Diagram of horizontal pipe weld with downhand method Figure 6-36. Vertical pipe fixed position weld with backhand method Figure 6-37. Deposition of root, filler, and finish weld beads Figure 6-38. Work angle - fillet and groove weld Figure 6-39. Travel angle - fillet and groove weld Figure 6-40. Forehand welding :\PDF\Welding\ILLUS.htm 15/10/2004 List of Illustrations Page 7 of 14 Figure 6-41. Backhand welding Figure 6-42. Results of weld metal shrinkage Figure 6-43. Methods of counteracting contractions Figure 6-44. Quench plates used in the welding of sheet metal Figure 6-45. Fixture used in the welding of sheet metal Figure 6-46. Controlling expansion and contraction of castings by preheating Figure 6-47. Cube of metal showing expansion Figure 6-48. Longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) shrinkage stresses in a butt weld Figure 6-49. Longitudinal (L) and transverse (T) shrinkage stresses in a fillet weld Figure 6-50. Distortion in a butt weld Figure 6-51. Distortion in a fillet weld Figure 6-52. The order in which to make weld joints Figure 6-53. Edge welded joint - residual stress pattern Figure 6-54. Butt welded joint - residual stress pattern Figure 6-55. Ductile fracture surface Figure 6-56. Brittle fracture surface Figure 6-57. Fatigue fracture surface Figure 6-58. Corner joint Figure 6-59. Tee joint Figure 6-60. Redesigned corner joint to avoid lamellar tearing Figure 6-61. Effect of ground location on magnetic arc below Figure 6-62. Unbalanced magnetic force due to current direction change Figure 6-63. Unbalanced magnetic force due to unbalanced magnetic path Figure 6-64. Reduction of magnetic force to induced fields Figure 7-1. Tensile strength Figure 7-2. Shear strength Figure 7-3. Compressive strength Figure 7-4. Characteristics of sparks generated by the grinding of metals Figure 7-5. Blast furnace :\PDF\Welding\ILLUS.htm 15/10/2004 List of Illustrations Page 8 of 14 Figure 7-6. Conversion of iron ore into cast iron, wrought iron, and steel Figure 7-7. How steel qualities change as carbon is added Figure 7-8. Weld preparation Figure 7-9. Heat input nomograph Figure 7-10. Studding method for cast iron repair Figure 7-11. Joint design for aluminum plates Figure 7-12. Aluminum joint designs for gas metal-arc welding processes Figure 7-13. Joint preparation for arc welding magnesium Figure 7-14. Position of torch and welding rod Figure 7-15. Minimizing cracking during welding Figure 7-16. Baffle arrangements to improve shielding Figure 7-17. Trailing shield Figure 7-18. Backing fixtures for butt welding heavy plate and thin sheet Figure 7-19. Use of weld backup tape Figure 8-1. Transfer of metal across the arc of a bare electrode Figure 8-2. Deposition rates of steel flux-cored electrodes Figure 8-3. Correct electrode taper Figure 10-1. Characteristic curve for welding power source Figure 10-2. Curve for single control welding machine Figure 10-3. Curve for dual control welding machines Figure 10-4. Volt ampere slope vs welding operation Figure 10-5. Volt ampere curve for true constant current machine Figure 10-6. Pulsed current welding Figure 10-7. Burn-off rates of wire vs current Figure 10-8. Static volt amp characteristic curve of CV machine Figure 10-9. Static volt amp curve with arc range Figure 10-10. Various slopes of characteristic curves Figure 10-11. Current density - various electrode signs Figure 10-12. Electrical circuit :\PDF\Welding\ILLUS.htm 15/10/2004 List of Illustrations Page 9 of 14 Figure 10-13. Welding electrical circuit Figure 10-14. Arc characteristic volt amp curve Figure 10-15. The dc tungsten arc Figure 10-16. Arc length vs voltage and heat Figure 10-17. The dc shielded metal arc Figure 10-18. The dc consumable electrode metal arc Figure 10-19. Sine wave generation Figure 10-20. Sequences in multilayer welding Figure 10-21. Schematic drawing of SMAW equipment Figure 10-22. Elements of a typical welding circuit for shielded metal arc welding Figure 10-23. Three types of free-flight metal transfer in a welding arc Figure 10-24. Travel speed limits for current levels used for 1/8-inch-diameter E6010 SMAW electrode. Dashed lines show travel speed limits as determined by amount of undercut and bead shape Figure 10-25. Travel speed limits for current levels used for 1/8-inch-diameter E6011 SMAW electrode. Dashed lines show travel speed limits as determined by amount of undercut and bead shape Figure 10-26. Travel speed limits for current levels used for 1/8-inch-diameter E6013 SMAW electrode. Dashed lines show travel speed limits as determined by amount of undercut and bead shape Figure 10-27. Travel speed limits for current levels used for 1/8-inch-diameter E7018 SMAW electrode. Dashed lines show travel speed limits as determined by amount of undercut and bead shape Figure 10-28. Travel speed limits for current levels used for 1/8-inch-diameter E7024 SMAW electrode. Dashed lines show travel speed limits as determined by amount of undercut and bead shape Figure 10-29. Travel speed limits for current levels used for 1/8-inch-diameter E8018 SMAW electrode. Dashed lines show travel speed limits as determined by amount of undercut and bead shape Figure 10-30. Travel speed limits for current levels used for 1/8-inch-diameter E11018 SMAW electrode. Dashed lines show travel speed limits as determined by amount of undercut and bead shape Figure 10-31. Shielded metal arc welding Figure 10-32. Gas tungsten arc (TIG) welding (GTAW) Figure 10-33. Gas tungsten arc welding equipment arrangement Figure 10-34. Technique for manual gas tungsten arc (TIG) welding Figure 10-35. Process diagram - keyhole mode - PAW Figure 10-36. Cross section of plasma arc torch head Figure 10-37. Transferred and nontransferred plasma arcs Figure 10-38. Various joints for plasma arc :\PDF\Welding\ILLUS.htm 15/10/2004 List of Illustrations Page 10 of 14 Figure 10-39. Circuit diagram - PAW Figure 10-40. Quality and common faults Figure 10-41. Deposition rates Figure 10-42. Typical air cooled carbon electrode holders Figure 10-43. Process diagram - CAW Figure 10-44. Gas metal arc welding process Figure 10-45. MIG welding process Figure 10-46. Typical semiautomatic gas-cooled, curved-neck gas metal arc welding gun Figure 10-47. Variation in volumes and transfer rate of drops with welding current (steel electrode) Figure 10-48. Voltage versus current for E70S-2 1/16-inch-diameter electrode and shield gas of argon with 2-percent oxygen addition Figure 10-49. Voltage versus current for E70S-2 1/16-inch-diameter electrode and carbon dioxide shield gas Figure 10-50. Voltage versus current for E70S-3 1/16-inch-diameter electrode and shield gas of argon with 2-percent oxygen addition Figure 10-51. Voltage versus current for E70S-3 1/16-inch-diameter electrode and carbon dioxide shield gas Figure 10-52. Voltage versus current for E70S-4 1/16-inch-diameter electrode and carbon dioxide shield gas Figure 10-53. Voltage versus current for E70S-6 1/16-inch-diameter electrode and carbon dioxide shield gas Figure 10-54. Voltage versus current for E110S 1/16-inch-diameter electrode and shield gas of argon with 2-percent oxygen addition Figure 10-55. Flux-cored arc welding process Figure 10-56. Equipment for flux-cored arc welding Figure 10-57. Wire feed assembly Figure 10-58. Cross-section of a flux-cored wire Figure 10-59. Block diagram - SAW Figure 10-60. Process diagram - submerged arc welding Figure 10-61. Weld joint designs for submerged arc welding Figure 10-62. Deposition rates for singel electrodes Figure 10-63. Welds corresponding to table 10-23 Figure 10-64. Stickout vs deposition rate Figure 10-65. Welding on rotating circular parts Figure 10-66. Angle of slope of work vs weld :\PDF\Welding\ILLUS.htm 15/10/2004 List of Illustrations Page 11 of 14 Figure 10-67. Angle of electrode vs weld Figure 10-68. Two electrode wire systems Figure 10-69. Strip electrode on surfacing Figure 10-70. Welding with iron powder additives Figure 10-71. Plasma arc torch terminology Figure 10-72. Basic plasma arc cutting circuitry Figure 10-73. Dual flow plasma arc cutting Figure 10-74. Water injection plasma arc cutting arrangement Figure 10-75. Process diagram for air carbon arc cutting Figure 10-76. A...
View Full Document

  • Three '16
  • Arc welding, Welding Operations

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture