Carpita1996 - 1040-2519/96/0601-0445$08.00445Annu. Rev....

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Unformatted text preview: 1040-2519/96/0601-0445$08.00445Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 1996. 47:44576Copyright 1996 by Annual Reviews Inc. All rights reservedSTRUCTURE AND BIOGENESIS OFTHE CELL WALLS OF GRASSESNicholas C. CarpitaDepartment of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana47907KEY WORDS: cereals, grasses, cell-wall polysaccharides, cell-wall biosynthesis, cell-wall ar-chitectureABSTRACTThe chemical structures of the primary cell walls of the grasses and their pro-genitors differ from those of all other flowering plant species. They vary in thecomplex glycans that interlace and cross-link the cellulose microfibrils to forma strong framework, in the nature of the gel matrix surrounding this framework,and in the types of aromatic substances and structural proteins that covalentlycross-link the primary and secondary walls and lock cells into shape. This re-view focuses on the chemistry of the unique polysaccharides, aromatic sub-stances, and proteins of the grasses and how these structural elements are syn-thesized and assembled into dynamic and functional cell walls. Despite widedifferences in wall composition, the developmental physiology of grasses issimilar to that of all flowering plants. Grass cells respond similarly to environ-mental cues and growth regulators, exhibit the same alterations in physicalproperties of the wall to allow cell growth, and possess similar patterns of wallbiogenesis during the development of specific cell and tissue types. Possibleunifying mechanisms of growth are suggested to explain how grasses performthe same wall functions as other plants but with different constituents and ar-chitecture.CONTENTSINTRODUCTION ......................................... ..........................................................................446THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS OF THE PRIMARY WALLS OF THE POACEAE ......447Cellulose.................................................. ..........................................................................447Glucuronoarabinoxylans......................... ..........................................................................447The (13),(14)--D-glucans................ ..........................................................................448Annu.Rev.Plant.Physiol.Plant.Mol.Biol.1996.47:445-476.Downloadedfromarjournals.annualreviews.orgbyUniversityofGeorgiaon4/26/6.Forpersonaluseonly.Xyloglucan............................................... ..........................................................................450Other Glycans.......................................... ..........................................................................450Pectic Substances..................................... ..........................................................................450Aromatic Substances................................ ..........................................................................451Structural Proteins................................... ..............................................................................
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Carpita1996 - 1040-2519/96/0601-0445$08.00445Annu. Rev....

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