1Carbohydrates- Chapter 8•Introduction and definition monosaccharides•Aldoses and Ketoses•Cyclic glycosyl residues,Haworth Projections•Modified monosaccharides•Glycosidic bond•Disaccharides•Polysaccharides•Peptidoglycans•Proteoglycans•GlycoproteinsCarbohydrates* ____________ organic molecule on earth* _______________________________(or yield these upon hydrolysis)* __________: energy storage (glycogen, starch)metabolic intermediates (ATP, coenzymes)part of DNA & RNAstructural elements in cell walls of bacteria,fungi & plantsexoskeleton of arthropodsextracellular matrix of animalscell-cell communication/signalling•Individual monomeric units are called__________________(CH20)n where n3•_________________(contain 2-20 monosaccharides)________________(two linked monosaccharides) •_____________________(> 20 monosaccharides)•pure mono- & disaccharides are water-soluble,colorless in solution & sweet •___________________________: aldoses & ketoses___________: carbohydrate polymer______________: carbohydrate derivative where carbohydrate(s) are linked to a peptide, protein or lipid (i.e. proteoglycans, peptidoglycans, glycoproteins, glycolipids)___________: study of role of glycans and glycoconjugates in living organisms
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2______________: compounds with the same molecular formula but different spatial arrangement of their atomsD & L sugars differ only in steric arrangement of atoms about central C. They are non-superimposable mirror images (i.e. _____________)They differ in orientation of the crystals, in directions in which solutions rotate polarized light, and in selectivity of reaction with other asymmetric moleculesFig 8.1Fischer projections of: (a) L- and D-glyceraldehyde, (b) dihydroxyacetoneFig 8.2Stereo view of L- and D-glyceraldehyde(L)(D) (L)(D) N (# of Cs)NameExample3triose4tetrose5pentose6hexoseFor sugars with >1 asymmetric (chiral) carbon, D & L refer to chiral C furthest from aldehyde (or ketone) & correspond to D & L glyceraldehyde# of sterioisomers = 2n where n = # of chiral C’s______________: sterioisomers that differ in configuration at only one chiral center